- Open Access
Cloning and recombinant expression of a cellulase from the cellulolytic strain Streptomyces sp. G12 isolated from compost
© Amore et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2012
- Received: 20 October 2012
- Accepted: 16 December 2012
- Published: 26 December 2012
The use of lignocellulosic materials for second generation ethanol production would give several advantages such as minimizing the conflict between land use for food and fuel production, providing less expensive raw materials than conventional agricultural feedstock, allowing lower greenhouse gas emissions than those of first generation ethanol. However, cellulosic biofuels are not produced at a competitive level yet, mainly because of the high production costs of the cellulolytic enzymes. Therefore, this study was aimed at discovering new cellulolytic microorganisms and enzymes.
Different bacteria isolated from raw composting materials obtained from vegetable processing industry wastes were screened for their cellulolytic activity on solid medium containing carboxymethylcellulose. Four strains belonging to the actinomycetes group were selected on the basis of their phenotypic traits and cellulolytic activity on solid medium containing carboxymethylcellulose. The strain showing the highest cellulolytic activity was identified by 16S rRNA sequencing as belonging to Streptomyces genus and it was designated as Streptomyces sp. strain G12. Investigating the enzymes responsible for cellulase activity produced by Streptomyces G12 by proteomic analyses, two endoglucanases were identified. Gene coding for one of these enzymes, named CelStrep, was cloned and sequenced. Molecular analysis showed that the celstrep gene has an open reading frame encoding a protein of 379 amino acid residues, including a signal peptide of 37 amino acid residues. Comparison of deduced aminoacidic sequence to the other cellulases indicated that the enzyme CelStrep can be classified as a family 12 glycoside hydrolase. Heterologous recombinant expression of CelStrep was carried out in Escherichia coli, and the active recombinant enzyme was purified from culture supernatant and characterized. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of carboxymethylcellulose following a Michaelis–Menten kinetics with a KM of 9.13 mg/ml and a vmax of 3469 μM min-1. The enzyme exhibits a half life of around 24 h and 96 h at 60°C and 50°C, respectively and shows a retention of around 80% of activity after 96 h at 40°C.
In this manuscript, we describe the isolation of a new cellulolytic strain, Streptomyces sp. G12, from industrial waste based compost, the identification of the enzymes putatively responsible for its cellulolytic activity, the cloning and the recombinant expression of the gene coding for the Streptomyces sp. G12 cellulase CelStrep, that was characterized showing to exhibit a relevant thermoresistance increasing its potential for cellulose conversion.
- Recombinant expression
Demand for energy has more than doubled in the last 30 years in the Mediterranean where an under-exploitation of biomass for biofuel production takes place, biomass accounting for just 21% of the total renewable capacity. Adopting lignocellulosic residues as raw materials for effective large-scale production of bioethanol fuel in the Mediterranean is an urgent requirement if the region’s growing energy demands are to be met and the climate change effects there alleviated. Lignocellulosic biomass is an attractive material for production of a wide range of high added value products, such as fuel ethanol. Lignocellulose is the most abundant renewable resource on Earth, and it constitutes a large component of the wastes originating from municipal, agricultural, forestry and some industrial sources. The use of lignocellulosic materials would minimize the conflict between land use for food and feed production and energy and bioproducts feedstock production. This raw material is less expensive than conventional agricultural feedstock and can be produced with lower input of fertilizers, pesticides and energy.
However, cellulosic biofuels are not produced at a competitive level yet, due to the high cost of processing with the currently available technologies.
Conversion of cellulose into fermentable sugars for ethanol production is currently performed by enzymatic hydrolysis carried out by cellulases, produced by a wide variety of microorganisms, depolymerizing such a polymer and playing a major role in the recycling of biomass. Wild type and mutant strains of Trichoderma spp., have long been considered to be the most powerful producers of cellulases. The production costs of these enzymes are very high and a huge amount of hydrolytic enzymes is required for hydrolysis on industrial scale.
Bacteria, showing higher growth rate than fungi have good potential to be used in cellulase production. Among bacteria, the actinomycetes Thermomonospora fusca[5–8], Streptomyces thermodiastaticus, Thermomonospora curvata[9–13], Streptomyces viridosporus and S. setonii as well as other strains of Streptomyces sp.[15, 16] and other actinomycetes were reported as producers of cellulolytic activity.
This study was aimed at isolating a new cellulolytic bacterium and characterizing the enzymes responsible for its cellulolytic capabilities in order to catch better biocatalysts for second generation ethanol production. Identification of the enzymes putatively responsible for the cellulolytic activity of the strain Streptomyces sp. G12, the most active cellulase producer among the cellulolytic actinomycetes isolated from compost, is reported. Moreover, cloning and sequencing of the gene encoding one of the identified cellulases and its heterologous recombinant expression in Escherichia coli are described along with characterization of the recombinant enzyme.
Cellulolytic bacteria isolation
Cellulolytic microorganisms were isolated from mature compost obtained from agro-industrial wastes consisting of pomace with kernel (65%), liquid sewage sludge (22%) from industrial processing of vegetable (potatoes and carrotoes) and borland molasses (13%). Representative samples of 1 Kg were taken from the external (right and left side of the pile, about 5-10 cm of depth) and internal central part (at about 40 cm of depth) of biomass. Microbial isolates were obtained in solid media following the method described by Hankin and Anagnostic with some modifications. Initial compost suspensions were prepared by the addition of 20 g (w/v) of compost samples to 180 ml of quarter strength Ringer’s solution (Oxoid, Ltd., Oxford, UK) in 250 ml Erlenmeyer flasks. After shaking, suitable dilutions were made in the same solution and were used to inoculate solid media of growth composed by 5 g L-1 carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) (Sigma-Aldrich Chemie GmbH, Steinheim, Germany), 1 g L-1 (NH4)NO3, 1 g L-1 yeast extract, 50 ml L-1 standard salt solution, 1 ml L-1 trace elements solution, 0.02% Remazol Brilliant Blue R, 10 g L-1 bacteriological agar, at pH 7.0. After incubation at 28°C for 7 days, the plates were flooded with a Remazol Brilliant Blue R solution to put better in evidence the presence of clear haloes around the cellulolytic colonies. Single colonies were picked and checked for purity by repetitive streaking on CMC solid medium. All isolates were kept at 4°C on solid medium until analyses.
Screening on solid and liquid media
Solid media composition, used for the screening of microbial isolates, was the same described above without Remazol Brilliant Blue R. The plates were incubated at 28°C for 4 days. Afterwards, the strains were assayed for their ability to degrade CMC by incubation with 0.1% Congo red solution for 30 minutes followed by washing with 5 M NaCl. All the strains with a clear halo around the colonies were chosen as positive. A comparison of the cellulase production was then carried out by agar spot method. After adjusting the turbidity of tested bacterial suspensions by comparison with McFarland Turbidity Standard at the value 0.5 (corresponding to about 1.5 * 108 CFUmL-1), in 25 mL of Ringer solution (Sigma-Aldrich), cells were spotted on agar medium in triplicate. Spots were incubated at 28°C for 4 days, stained with 0.1% Congo red and activity halos dimensions were measured from the border of the colony to the outer edge of the halo. Experiments were performed in duplicate.
The liquid medium adopted for analysis of cellulase production levels contained 1% CMC, 0.25% (NH4)2SO4, 0.05% yeast extract, 0.27% KH2PO4, 0.53% Na2HPO4, 0.02% NaCl, 0.02% MgSO4-7H2O, 0.005% CaCl2. As far as Streptomyces strain G12 is concerned, other carbon sources were tested replacing CMC with an equivalent carbon amount of glucose, cellobiose, xylose or xylan (AppliChem, Germany), or using a combination of 0.6% CMC and 0.4% glucose or cellobiose. For this strain, submerged fermentation was also carried out using wheat straw (2% w/v) as carbon source and testing different concentrations of yeast extract (0.05%, 0.1%, 0.7%). The straw was reduced in small piece and sieved to have different dimension particles (< 0.8 mm, 0.8-2 mm, > 2 mm), moisturized with water (1:1 w/v) and autoclaved for 1 h at 110°C.
Phenotypic characterization of microbial isolates
Morphological analysis of colony of each bacterial strain was carried out observing shape (regular/irregular/rhizoid/punctiform/filamentous), edge (entire/undulate), surface (dry/viscid/powdery), elevation (flat/raised) and colour of colony.
The presence of the enzyme cytochrome oxidase was detected with commercial Oxidase strips (Oxoid Ltd, England).
Gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms were distinguished by mean of KOH test as described by Halebian et al..
The cellular morphology was studied with the optic microscope Eclipse E200 (Nikon).
Inoculum preparation and fermentation process
The bacterial strains were pre-inoculated dissolving a single colony in 10 mL of liquid medium having the composition described in the second paragraph of Methods section “Screening on solid and liquid media” and incubated over night at 28°C. Fermentation was carried out in 250 ml plugged Erlenmeyer flasks, each containing 50 mL of medium and inoculated with volumes of pre-inoculum corresponding to 0.8 O.D. After pre-inocula homogenization by ULTRA-TURRAX®, The inocula were incubated at 28°C on rotary shaker at 225 rpm for fifteen days. When indicated, a higher temperature in the range 28-47°C was adopted. From time to time, samples of liquid cultures were withdrawn and used for measurement of optical density (O.D.600nm) and extracellular cellulase activity. The results of these determinations reported in the figures and tables correspond to mean values of three independent experiments performed in three replicates.
Intracellular protein extraction
Intracellular crude protein extract of Streptomyces G12 was obtained by using a French press (Constant System, UK). Pellets obtained after 6 days of growth in liquid culture were resuspended in sodium phosphate 50 mM pH 6.5, before applying a pressure of around 2.5 kbar.
CMCase ctivity spot assay on solid medium
A preliminary analysis of levels of cellulase production in liquid medium was performed spotting 50 microliter of culture supernatants from different growth times (4 h, 5 h, 6 h, 7 h, 8 h, 9 h, 14 h, 15 h, 17 h, 20 h and 24 h) on solid CMC medium. After 1 h incubation at 50°C, the CMC plates were flooded by 0.1% Congo red staining, as described in the second paragraph of Methods section “Screening on solid and liquid media”.
endo-1,4-ß-Glucanase activity produced in liquid or submerged culture was assayed by using Azo-CMC (Megazyme, Ireland) as substrate, following supplier instructions and determined by referring to a standard curve.
Avicelase activity was measured by using Azo-Avicel (Megazyme, Ireland) as substrate, following supplier instructions.
16S rRNA partial sequence
Total genomic DNA of selected strains was extracted and purified using InstaGene™ Matrix (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Hercules, CA) according to the supplier’s recommendations. Two synthetic oligonucleotide primers at the 5’ and 3’ end of the 16S rDNA, described by Kumar et al. 9F GAGTTTGATCCTGGCTCAG and 1541R AAGGAGGTGATCCAACC were used to amplify the 16S rRNA gene. PCR was performed as previously reported. The PCR amplification fragment was purified by agarose (1.5% wt/vol) gel electrophoresis using a QIAquick gel extraction kit (Qiagen S.p.A., Milan, Italy) and sequenced. The DNA sequencing was ordered at Primm srl (Milan, Italy). The sequences were analysed by MacDNasis Pro v3.0.7 (Hitachi Software Engineering Europe S. A., Olivet Cedex, F) and compared to the GenBank nucleotide data library using the Blast software at the National Centre of Biotechnology Information website (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov), in order to determine their closest phylogenetic relatives.
The partial 16S rDNA sequence of the isolate G12 has been submitted to EMBL, and the accession number is HE585989.
Determination of protein concentration
Protein concentration of crude enzyme preparation was determined by Bradford method using Biorad reactive (München, Germany) following the procedure suggested by the supplier. Bovin serum albumin (BSA) was used to set up the standard curve.
Secreted proteins produced by Streptomyces sp. G12 were precipitated from the cultures corresponding at the maximum cellulase production by the addition of ammonium sulphate up to 80% saturation, after having removed cells by centrifugation. Precipitated proteins were recovered by centrifugation at 7500 rpm for 45 minutes at 4°C and brought in 50 mM Na2HPO4 pH 6.5, by dialysis through ultrafiltration devices with a cut-off of 10 kDa (Millipore S.p.A., Vimodrone Italy).
Semi-denaturing gel electrophoresis was carried out loading non-denatured and not-reduced samples on a SDS polyacrylamide gel, performed as described by Laemmli. Proteins showing cellulolytic activity were visualized following a modified version of the assay reported by Béguin. After electrophoresis, the gel was soaked in the same buffer used for dissolving proteins and gently shaken to remove SDS and rinature the proteins in the gel. The gel was then laid on the top of a thin sheet of 1.5% agar containing 1% CMC. After 1 h incubation at 40°C, zones of CMC hydrolysis were revealed by staining the agar replica with 0.1% of Congo red.
Protein identification by mass spectrometry
Slices of interest from the semi-denaturing PAGE were cut and in situ digested after extensive destaining with 0.1 M NH4HCO3 pH 7.5 and acetonitrile, reduction of disulphide bonds for 45 minutes in 100 μl of 10 mM dithiothreitol, 0.1 M NH4HCO3, pH 7.5 and carboxyamidomethylation of thiols for 30 minutes in the dark by addition of 100 μl of 55 mM iodoacetamide dissolved in the same buffer. Enzymatic digestion was performed by adding to each slice 100 ng of proteomic-grade trypsin in 10 μl of 10 mM NH4HCO3 pH 7.5 for 2 hours at 4°C. The buffer solution was then removed and 50 μl of 10 mM NH4HCO3 pH 7.5 were added and incubated for 18 hours at 37°C. Peptides were extracted with 20 μl of 10 mM NH4HCO3, 1% formic acid, 50% acetonitrile at room temperature.
Peptide mixtures were filtered on 0.22 μm PVDF membrane (Millipore) and analysed by LC-MSMS on a 6520 Accurate-Mass Q-TOF LC/MS System (Agilent Technologies, Palo Alto, CA) equipped with a 1200 HPLC system and a chip cube (Agilent Technologies). After loading, the peptide mixture is concentrated and washed in 40 nL enrichment column (Agilent Technologies chip), with 0.1% formic acid in 2% acetonitrile as the eluent. The sample is then fractionated on a C18 reverse-phase capillary column (Agilent Technologies chip) at a flow rate of 400 nl/min, with a linear gradient of eluent B (0.1% formic acid in 95% acetonitrile) in A (0.1% formic acid in 2% acetonitrile) from 7 to 80% in 50 min. Peptide analysis is performed using data-dependent acquisition of one MS scan (mass range from 300 to 1800 m/z) followed by MS/MS scans of the five most abundant ions in each MS scan. MS/MS spectra were measured automatically when the MS signal is over the threshold of 50000 counts. Double and triple charged ions were preferably isolated and fragmented over single charged ions. Raw data from nanoLC–MS/MS analyses transformed in mz.data format and used to query nonredundant protein databases with a licensed version of MASCOT 2.1 (Matrix Science, Boston, USA). Additional search parameters were a peptide mass tolerance set at 10 ppm and a fragment mass tolerance of 0.6 Da, up to 3 allowed missed cleavages, carbamidomethylation of cysteines as fixed modification, oxidation of methionine, and cyclization of N-term Q to pyro-Glu as variable modifications. Only doubly and triply charge ions were considered. Ions score is -10 log(P), where P is the probability that the observed match is a random event. The threshold above which the individual ions score indicates identity or extensive homology (p < 0.05) can vary from search to search. In our searches, on average, individual ion scores >25 indicated identity or extensive homology (p < 0.05). Protein scores are derived from ions scores as a nonprobabilistic basis for ranking protein hits (http://www.matrixscience.com/help/interpretation_help.html). Trypsin, dithiothreitol, iodoacetamide and NH4HCO3 were purchased from Sigma. Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA)-HPLC grade was from Carlo Erba (Milan, Italy). All other reagents and solvents were of the highest purity available from Baker.
Gene isolation and sequencing
Nucleotide sequences of oligonucleotides used to amplify celstrep gene
Annealing temperature (°C)
Analysis of gene and protein sequences
Sequence of gene coding for the enzyme CelStrep from Streptomyces sp. G12, named celstrep, was deposited with the EMBL Data Library under accession number HE862416. Alignments of DNA and of deduced amino acid sequences were generated using ClustalW2 (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/Tools/clustalw2/index.html). Signal peptide prediction was achieved using SignalP V4.0 (http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/SignalP/). Potential N-glycosylation sites (Asn-XXX-Ser/Thr) were computed on the NetNGlyc 1.0 server (http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/NetNGlyc/).
Heterologous recombinant expression
Gene celstrep was cloned into the expression vector pET28a (Novagen, Inc.) by Nde I and HindIII restriction sites to generate celstrep-pET28a, and it was expressed in E. coli strain BL21 CodonPlus (DE3) RP (Novargen Ltd).
Cells were cultured with a rotary shaker at 37°C until 1 OD600 and protein expression was induced with 1 mM isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) for 6 h at 37°C.
After centrifugation, supernatant was assayed for Azo-CMCase activity and the cells were used to obtain intracellular crude protein extract by using a French press (Constant System, UK). Pellets of liquid cultures were resuspended in Na phosphate 50 mM pH6.5, before applying a pressure of around 2.5 kbar. After centrifugation, the soluble fraction was also adopted to assay cellulase activity.
Recombinant enzyme purification
Proteins present in the culture supernatant of E. coli expressing celstrep at maximum production time were precipitated with ammonium sulphate up to 80% saturation and brought in 20 mM Tris–HCl pH 7. The proteins were then loaded on HiTrap Phenyl FF high sub (GE Healthcare, Uppsala, Sweden) equilibrated in buffer A (0.02 M Tris–HCl, 1.2 M (NH4)2SO4, pH 7.5), and the proteins were eluted isocratically with buffer B (0.02 M Tris–HCl pH 7.5). Fractions containing activity were combined and concentrated on an Amicon PM-10 membrane and analyzed by SDS-PAGE.
Recombinant enzyme characterization
Optimum temperature and temperature resistance
To determine the optimum temperature of the purified recombinant enzyme, the substrate of the activity assay (Azo-CMC) was dissolved in 100 mM sodium acetate buffer at pH 4.8 and the incubation (10 min) was performed at 30°C, 40°C, 50°C, 60°C, 70°C and 80°C. The thermo-resistance of CelStrep was studied by incubating the purified enzyme preparation in 100 mM sodium acetate buffer pH 4.8, at 40°C, 50°C, 60°C, 70°C and 80°C. The samples withdrawn were assayed for residual Azo-CMCase activity.
The results of these experiments reported in the manuscript correspond to mean values of three independent experiments performed in three replicates.
Determination of vmax and KM
For the experiments of enzyme kinetics characterization, cellulase activity was assayed in the total reaction mixture of 1 ml containing 0.5 ml of suitably diluted enzyme and 0.5 ml of 2% (w/v) CMC solution in 50 mM citrate buffer at pH 4.8. This mixture was incubated at 40°C for 30 min. The release of reducing sugars was determined by the 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) method. One unit of cellulase activity was defined as the amount of enzyme that liberated 1 μmol reducing sugar per minute from substrate.
The values of Michaelis–Menten constants (KM and vmax) of purified recombinant cellulase were identified by linear regression plots of Lineweaver and Burk. The enzyme was incubated at 50°C with the substrates of different concentrations of CMC ranging from 0.5 to 50 mg/ml in 50 mM citrate buffer at pH 4.8.
The results of these experiments reported in the manuscript correspond to mean values of three independent experiments performed in three replicates.
Screening and selection of cellulolytic microorganisms
Screening and phenotypic characterization of cellulolytic microorganisms
Ninety microorganisms isolated from mature compost obtained from agro-industrial wastes were screened for their cellulolytic activity on CMC solid medium, by Congo red staining. From this preliminary selection, 4 cellulolytic bacteria with a clear halo diameter from 6 to 17 mm around the colonies (data not shown) were selected.
Phenotype of the selected actinomycetes strains
Grey regular mycelium with white margins
White-grey regular mycelium
Halo size* (mm)
Screening of cellulolytic microorganisms in liquid medium
The strain G12 was identified by sequencing of 16S rRNA gene and it was shown to belong to Streptomyces sp.
Optimization of cellulolytic activity production by the selected Streptomyces G12 strain
The effect of carbon source on cellulase production by Streptomyces G12 strain was tested, using different concentrations (0.1%, 0.5%, and 1%) of CMC, substituting CMC with glucose, cellobiose, xylose or xylan, and also testing combinations of CMC and glucose or cellobiose. 1% CMC was proved to be the best condition for cellulase activity production, reaching a value of 0.0875 ± 0.025 UmL-1 (at the 3rd day), that was 1.75-, 2.5-, 3-, 5- and 7-fold higher than that reached in the presence of 0.5% CMC, xylan, cellobiose, xylose and 0.1% CMC, respectively.
Then, the order of cellulase activity production was 1% CMC > 0.5% CMC > xylan > cellobiose > xylose > 0.1% CMC. As far as cellulase activity production by actinomycetes is concerned, very variable effects were reported for other strains. Cellobiose and glucose have been previously reported as good[6, 7, 28] or poor[16, 29–31] inducers but they may also act as repressors of cellulase activity in some cases[6, 32, 33]. Xylose and xylan are often reported as non inducing cellulase activity[7, 16, 30], but in some cases they stimulate cellulase production[29, 30, 34].
Because of the low endoglucanase activity levels obtained by growing Streptomyces sp. strain G12 on the tested soluble substrates, an inducing carbon source was searched among insoluble substrates, often reported as good inducers of lignocellulosic activity[7, 16, 29, 36]. Therefore, a submerged fermentation on wheat straw was set up. These fermentation conditions were shown to be the best ones among those explored, thus encouraging application of the isolated strain to waste upgrading by solid state fermentation. Comparing different wheat straw sizes (<0.8 mm; 0.8-2 mm; >2 mm), it was shown that particles in the range 0.8-2 mm give the highest production level (Figure 2B). When yeast extract concentration was increased up to 0.7%[15, 28], no effect on cellulase activity production was revealed. Temperature strongly affects cellulase production in the presence of wheat straw as carbon source, and increasing from 28 to 37°C enhances cellulase activity by 1.5-fold (Figure 2B). Analysis of time course revealed that cellulase production continuously increases up to around 1.80 UmL-1 at the 15th day of the growth.
Proteins putatively responsible for cellulase activity were tentatively identified after a fractionation on a semi-denaturing SDS-PAGE where samples from the supernatant of the cell cultures were loaded without any denaturing treatment. The resulting gel was laid over another gel containing CMC as substrates for cellulase activity detection. Two activity positive bands were visualized, and in correspondence to these active bands, slices were excised from the SDS-PAGE and subjected to protein identification after in situ digestion and LC-MS/MS analysis of the peptide mixtures. Raw data were used to search non redundant NCBI database available on the net with no taxonomic restriction with the MS/MS ion search program on a MASCOT server as described above.
Results of protein identification in the SDS-PAGE in correspondence to the active bands including as significative only proteins identified with at least two peptides
Identified protein (Accession number)
Total score a
Matched sequence (individual ion score)
Sequence coverage (%)
Endoglucanase I (gi|544459)
Sequences of the cellulase gene and its derived protein
The gene coding for the cellulase from Streptomyces G12 strain similar to GH12 family cellulase from Streptomyces xylophagus (D2D3J0) was synthesized by PCR on Streptomyces G12’s genomic DNA using as primers both degenerate oligonucleotides whose sequences were designed on the basis of sequences of peptides identified by proteomics or sequences of peptides in similar proteins and specific oligonucleotides whose sequences were designed on the basis of sequence of amplified central region (Table 1), to amplify three overlapped fragments.
A signal peptide sequence of 37 amino acids was singled out by SignalP 4.0 Server (http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/SignalP/). The mature protein is 342 amino acids in length and has a calculated molecular mass of 35369.67 Da.
Three potential N-glycosylation sites (Asn-X-Ser/Thr) were found in deduced amino acid sequence namely Asn154, Asn192 and Asn 293.
Similarity searches performed with Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLASThttp://www.ebi.ac.uk/Tools/sss/wublast/) using the deduced amino acid sequence of CelStrep as the query revealed its belonging to family GH12 enzymes (http://www.cazy.org/GH12.html;) extracted from the Carbohydrate-active enzymes database (http://www.cazy.org/,). The best hits (99% and 93% identities) were with Beta-1,4-endoglucanase from Streptomyces xylophagus (EMBL Accession FJ441063) and eglS Cellulase from Streptomyces rochei (EMBL Accession X73953), respectively, followed by enzymes from Streptomyces ghanaensis ATCC 14672 (EMBL Accession DS999641) and Streptomyces griseoflavus Tu4000 (EMBL Accession GG657758) displaying 84 and 83% identities respectively.
The family GH12 glycoside hydrolases have a catalytic mechanism with retention of configuration with two glutamates involved in catalysis, one acting as an acid/base and the other as a nucleophile.
Three-dimensional structures of family GH12 cellulases have been obtained for one enzyme from Archea Pyrococcus furiosus DSM 3638 (GenBank Accession AAD54602.1), five bacterial enzymes namely from Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 14580/DSM13, from Rhodothermus marinus, from Streptomyces lividans 1326, from Streptomyces sp. 11AG8, from Thermotoga maritima MSB8, and six fungal enzymes, namely from Aspergillus aculeatus F-50, Aspergillus aculeatus ATCC 16872, Aspergillus niger CBS 120.49/N400, Humicola grisea ATCC 22081Hypocrea jecorina QM9414, Hypocrea schweinitzii ATCC 66965. The catalytic domain is a β-jelly roll catalytic domain.
Based on the sequence alignment, the potential catalytic glutamates of CelStrep are located at positions 156 (nucleophile) and 240 (acid/base).
Recombinant expression system
Because of the difficulties to purify the native CelStrep enzyme from Streptomyces G12 due to the presence of another cellulase isoform with very similar chromatographic behavior (data not shown), recombinant expression system was set up to characterize the new cellulase. The enzyme CelStrep was expressed in E. coli. Synthesis of celstrep gene was performed by MrGene (http://mrgene.com). The full-length celstrep gene sequence including sequence coding for signal peptide was optimized for recombinant expression by adapting it to the E. coli codon usage.
The celstrep gene was expressed under the control of T7 RNA polymerase promoter in E. coli strain BL21 CodonPlus (DE3) RP. Protein expression was induced with 1 mM IPTG added to the cells grown until 1 OD600, for 6 hours at 37°C. 1 Uml-1 of Azo-CMCase activity was detected in the culture supernatant, and a similar activity level was revealed in the soluble fraction of intracellular proteins.
This achievement suggests the applicability of the developed E. coli system as a cell factory for extracellular production of other bacterial cellulases for their purification and characterization, also considering that not native cellulases are present in the bacterial host differently from the fungal host Trichoderma reesei that, on the contrary, is more appropriate for cellulase overproduction due to the very higher level of recombinant expression.
Characterization of the recombinant enzyme CelStrep
The estimated molecular weight deduced from SDS-PAGE was shown to be around 37,000 Da, similar to that deduced from gene sequence of the mature protein. These results are close to those of Wittmann et al., Irdani et al. and Theberge et al. reporting CMCases with a molecular weight of 36, 29 and 46 kDa, respectively.
The observed extracellular production of the mature active protein suggests that celstrep leader sequence could allow extracellular production of other recombinant proteins showing the potential of the developed E. coli system for extracellular production of bacterial cellulases and, possibly, other enzymes, for their characterization.
CelStrep follows a Michaelis–Menten kinetics towards CMC: the KM for this substrate is 9.7 ± 0.8 mg ml-1 similar to that reported by Theberge et al., and 9-fold lower than that reported by Wittmann et al., and the vmax is 3469 ± 35 μM min-1 corresponding to 600 IU/mg of enzyme, that is 6- and 30- fold higher than those reported by Wittmann et al. and Theberge et al., respectively.
In this manuscript, different microorganisms isolated from compost were screened for their cellulolytic activity and the bacterium producing the highest cellulolytic activity levels was identified by 16S rRNA sequencing and designated as Streptomyces sp. strain G12. This strain was shown to produce the highest cellulolytic activity levels even in comparison to Bacillus cellulolytic strains isolated in similar conditions. In order to develop a recombinant expression system for cellulases from Streptomyces sp. G12, allowing their purification and characterization, the gene coding for one of the enzymes identified by proteomics as responsible for its cellulase activity was amplified and sequenced, and named celstrep. Analysis of the amino acid sequence of CelStrep, placed the enzyme in family 12 of the glycoside hydrolases. A heterologous expression system was set up in E. coli using the leader sequence of CelStrep. The active recombinant enzyme was purified from culture supernatant and characterized standing out for its thermoresistance. Besides increasing its potential of CelStrep for cellulose conversion, its thermoresistance would make this cellulase an appropriate candidate as a scaffold for directed evolution experiments aimed at developing better biocatalysts for cellulosic biofuel production, coherently with the original theory that supports the direct relationship between thermostability, mutational robustness and evolutionary capacity.
Moreover, it is worth noting that the observed extracellular production of the mature active recombinant CelStrep protein in E. coli suggests that celstrep leader sequence could allow extracellular production of other recombinant proteins. This shows the potential of the developed E. coli system as a cell factory for extracellular production not only of bacterial cellulases but also of other bacterial enzymes for their characterization, highlighting general interest of these findings.
This work was supported by grant from the Ministero dell’Università e della Ricerca Scientifica -Industrial Research Project “Integrated agro-industrial chains with high energy efficiency for the development of eco-compatible processes of energy and biochemicals production from renewable sources and for the land valorization (EnerbioChem)” PON01_01966, funded in the frame of Operative National Programme Research and Competitiveness 2007–2013 D. D. Prot. n. 01/Ric. 18.1.2010.
- Faraco V, Hadar Y: The potential of lignocellulosic ethanol production in the Mediterranean basin. Renew Sust Energ Rev. 2011, 15: 252-266. 10.1016/j.rser.2010.09.050. 10.1016/j.rser.2010.09.050View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lynd LR, Larson E, Greene N, Laser M, Sheehan J, Dale BE, McLaughlin S, Wang M: The role of biomass in America’s energy future: framing the analysis. Biofuels Bioprod Bioref. 2009, 3: 113-123. 10.1002/bbb.134. 10.1002/bbb.134View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lynd LR, Laser MS, Bransby D, Dale BE, Davison B, Hamilton R, Himmel M, Keller M, McMillan JD, Sheehan J, Wyman CE: How biotech can transform biofuels. Nat Biotechnol. 2008, 26 (2): 169-172. 10.1038/nbt0208-169View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Gusakov AV, Salanovich TN, Antonov AI, Ustinov BB, Okunev ON, Burlingame R, Emalfarb M, Baez M, Sinitsyn AP: Design of highly efficient cellulase mixtures for enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2007, 97 (5): 1028-1038. 10.1002/bit.21329View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Crawford DL, McCoy E: Cellulases of Thermomonospora fusca and Streptomyces Thermodiastaticus. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1972, 24: 150-152.Google Scholar
- Lin E, Wilson DB: Regulation of 3-1, 4-endoglucanase synthesis in Thermomonospora fusca. Appl Environ Microb. 1987, 53 (6): 1352-1357.Google Scholar
- Spiridonov NA, Wilson DB: Regulation of biosynthesis of individual cellulases in Thermomonospora fusca. J Bact. 1998, 180 (14): 3529-3532.Google Scholar
- Deng Y, Fong SS: Influence of culture aeration on the cellulase activity of Thermobifida fusca. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2010, 85: 965-974. 10.1007/s00253-009-2155-9View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Stutzenberger FJ: Cellulase production by Thermomonospora curvata isolated from municipal solid waste compost. App Microb. 1971, 22 (2): 147-152.Google Scholar
- Stutzenberger FJ: Cellulolytic activity of Thermomonospora curvata: nutritional requirements for cellulase production. Appl Microb. 1972, 24 (1): 77-82.Google Scholar
- Stutzenberger FJ: Cellulolytic activity of Thermomonospora curvata: optimal assay conditions, partial purification, and product of the cellulase. Appl Microbiol. 1972, 24 (1): 83-90.Google Scholar
- Fennington G, Neubauer D, Stutzenberger F: Cellulase biosynthesis in a catabolite repression-resistant mutant of Thermomonospora curvata. Appl Environ Microb. 1984, 47 (1): 201-204.Google Scholar
- Lin S-B, Stutzenberger FJ: Purification and characterization of the major -1, 4-endondoglucanase from Thermomonospora curvata. J Appl Bact. 1995, 79: 447-453. 10.1111/j.1365-2672.1995.tb03160.x. 10.1111/j.1365-2672.1995.tb03160.xView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Antai SP, Crawford DL: Degradation of softwood, hardwood, and grass lignocelluloses by Two Streptomyces strains. Appl Env Microb. 1981, 42 (2): 378-380.Google Scholar
- Semêdo LT, Gomes RC, Bon EPS, Soares RMA, Linhares LF, Coelho RR: Endocellulase and exocellulase activities of Two Streptomyces strains isolated from a forest soil. Appl Biochem Biotech. 2000, 84–86: 267-276.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Godden B, Legon T, Helvenstein P, Penninckx M: Regulation of the production of hemicellulolytic and cellulolytic enzymes by a Streptomyces sp. Growing on lignocellulose. J Gen Microb. 1989, 135: 285-292.Google Scholar
- George SP, Ahmad A, Rao MB: A novel thermostable xylanase from Thermomonospora sp.: influence of additives on thermostability. Bioresour Technol. 2001, 78: 221-224. 10.1016/S0960-8524(01)00029-3View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hankin L, Anagnostic SL: Solid media containing carboxymethylcellulose to detect CX cellulose activity of micro-organisms. J Gen Microbiol. 1977, 98: 109-115.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Moore RL, Basset BB, Swift MJ: Developments in the Remazol Brilliant Blue dye-assay for studying the ecology of cellulose decomposition. Soil Biol Biochem. 1979, 11: 311-312. 10.1016/0038-0717(79)90077-4. 10.1016/0038-0717(79)90077-4View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kluepfel D: Screening of procaryotes for cellulose-and hemicellulose degrading enzymes. Methods Enzymol. 1988, 160: 180-186.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Halebian S, Harris B, Finegold S, Rolfei R: Rapid method that aids in distinguishing gram-positive from gram-negative anaerobic bacteria. J Clin Microbiol. 1981, 13: 444-448.Google Scholar
- Kumar V, Bharti A, Gusain O, Bisht GS: An improved method for isolation of genomic DNA from filamentous actinomycetes. J Sci Eng Tech Mgt. 2010, 2: 10-13.Google Scholar
- Blaiotta G, Pepe O, Mauriello G, Villani F, Andolfi R, Moschetti G: 16S–23S rDNA intergenic spacer region polymorphism of Lactococcus garvieae Lactococcus raffinolactis and Lactococcus lactis as revealed by PCR and nucleotide sequence analysis. Syst Appl Microbiol. 2002, 25: 520-527. 10.1078/07232020260517652View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Laemmli UK: Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature. 1970, 227: 680-685. 10.1038/227680a0View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Beguin P: Detection of cellulase activity in polyacrylamide gels using Congo red-stained agar replicas. Anal Biochem. 1983, 131: 333-336. 10.1016/0003-2697(83)90178-1View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Raeder V, Broda P: Preparation and characterization of DNA from lignin degrading fungi. Methods Enzymol. 1988, 161B: 211-220.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Miller GL: Use of dinitrosalicylic acid reagent for the determination of reducing sugar. Anal Chem. 1959, 31: 426-428. 10.1021/ac60147a030. 10.1021/ac60147a030View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chellapandi P, Jani HM: Production of endoglucanase by the native strains of Streptomyces isolates in submerged fermentation. Braz J Microbiol. 2008, 39: 122-127. 10.1590/S1517-83822008000100026. 10.1590/S1517-83822008000100026View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Okeke BC, Paterson A: Simultaneous production and induction of Cellulolytic and Xylanolytic Enzymes in a Streptomyces sp. World J Microb Biot. 1992, 8: 483-487. 10.1007/BF01201945. 10.1007/BF01201945View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Tuncer M, Ball AS, Rob A, Wilson MT: Optimization of Extracellular Lignocellulolytic Enzyme Production by a thermophilic Actinomycete Thermomonospora Fusca BD25. Enzyme Microb Tech. 1999, 25: 38-47. 10.1016/S0141-0229(99)00012-5. 10.1016/S0141-0229(99)00012-5View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Jang H-D, Chen K-S: Production and characterization of thermostable cellulases from Streptomyces transformant T3-1. World J Microb Biot. 2003, 19: 263-268. 10.1023/A:1023641806194. 10.1023/A:1023641806194View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wood WE, Neubauer DG, Stutzenberger FJ: Cyclic AMP levels during induction and repression of cellulase biosynthesis in thermomonospora curvata. J Bacteriol. 1984, 160: 1047-1054.Google Scholar
- Alani F, Anderson WA, Moo-Young M: New isolate of Streptomyces Sp. With novel thermoalkalotolerant cellulases. Biotechnol Lett. 2008, 30: 123-126.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mackenzie CR, Bilous D, Schneider H, Johnston KG: Induction of Cellulolytic and Xylanolytic Enzyme Systems in Streptomyces spp. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1987, 53: 2835-2839.Google Scholar
- Nurkanto A: Cellulolitic activities of actinomycetes isolated from soil rhizosphere of waigeo, raja ampat. West papua. J Tanah Trop. 2009, 14: 239-242.Google Scholar
- Ball AS, McCarthy AJ: Saccharification of Straw by Actinomycete Enzymes. J Gen Microbiol. 1988, 134: 2139-2147.Google Scholar
- Henrissat B, Bairoch A: Updating the sequence-based classification of glycosyl hydrolases. J Biochem. 1996, 316: 695-696. Printed in Great Britain,View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Cantarel BL, Coutinho PM, Rancurel C, Bernard T, Lombard V, Henrissat B: The carbohydrate-active enzymes database (CAZy): an expert resource for glycogenomics. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009, 37: 233-238. 10.1093/nar/gkn663. 10.1093/nar/gkn663View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Perito B, Hanhart E, Irdani T, Iqbal M, McCarthy AJ, Mastromei G: Characterization and sequence analysis of a Streptomyces rochei A2 endoglucanase-encoding gene. Gene. 1994, 148: 119-124. 10.1016/0378-1119(94)90244-5View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Gloster TM, Ibatullin FM, Macauley K, Eklof JM, Roberts S, Turkenburg JP, Bjornvad ME, Danielsen PLJ, Johansen KS, Borchert TV, Wilson KS, Brumer H, Davies GJ: Characterization and three-dimensional structures of two distinct bacterial xyloglucanases from families GH5 and GH12. J Biol Chem. 2007, 282: 19177-19189. 10.1074/jbc.M700224200View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Crennell SJ, Hreggvidsson GO, Nordberg Karlsson E: The structure of Rhodothermus marinus Cel12A, a highly thermostable family 12 endoglucanase, at 1.8 A resolution. J Mol Biol. 2002, 320 (4): 883-897. 10.1016/S0022-2836(02)00446-1View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sulzenbacher G, Shareck F, Morosoli R, Dupont C, Davies GJ: The Streptomyces lividans family 12 endoglucanase: construction of the catalytic cre, expression, and X-ray structure at 1.75 A resolution. J Biochem. 1997, 36: 16032-16039. 10.1021/bi972407v. 10.1021/bi972407vView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sandgren M, Gualfetti PJ, Shaw A, Gross LS, Saldajeno M, Day AG, Jones TA, Mitchinson C: Comparison of family 12 glycoside hydrolases and recruited substitutions important for thermal stability. J Prot Sci. 2003, 12 (4): 848-860. 10.1110/ps.0237703. 10.1110/ps.0237703View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Cheng Y-S, Ko T-P, Wu T-H, Ma Y, Huang C-H, Lai H-L, Wang AH-J, Liu J-R, Guo R-T: Crystal structure and substrate-binding mode of cellulase 12A from Thermotoga maritima. Proteins. 2011, 79 (4): 1193-1204. 10.1002/prot.22953View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yoshizawa T, Shimizu T, Hirano H, Sato M, Hashimoto H: Structural basis for the inhibition of xyloglucan-specific endo-beta-1, 4-glucanase (XEG) by XEG-protein inhibitor. J Biol Chem. 2012, 287 (22): 18710-18716. 10.1074/jbc.M112.350520View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Khademi S, Zhang D, Swanson SM, Wartenberg A, Witte K, Meyer EF: Determination of the structure of an endoglucanase from Aspergillus niger and its mode of inhibition by palladium chloride. Acta Crystallogr D: Biol Crystallogr. 2002, 58 (4): 660-667. 10.1107/S0907444902003360. 10.1107/S0907444902003360View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sandgren M, Gualfetti PJ, Paech C, Paech S, Shaw A, Gross LS, Saldajeno M, Berglund GI, Jones TA, Mitchinson C: The humicola grisea Cel12A enzyme structure at 1.2 A resolution and the impact of its free cysteine residues on thermal stability. Protein Sci. 2003, 12 (12): 2782-2793. 10.1110/ps.03220403View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sandgren M, Shaw A, Ropp TH, Wu S, Bott R, Cameron AD, Stahlberg J, Mitchinson C, Jones TA: The X-ray crystal structure of the Trichoderma reesei family 12 endoglucanase 3, Cel12A, at 1.9 A resolution. J Mol Biol. 2001, 308 (2): 295-310. 10.1006/jmbi.2001.4583View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sandgren M, Gualfetti PJ, Shaw A, Gross LS, Saldajeno M, Day AG, Jones TA, Mitchinson C: Comparison of family 12 glycoside hydrolases and recruited substitutions important for thermal stability. Protein Sci. 2003, 12 (4): 848-860. 10.1110/ps.0237703View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zou G, Shi S, Jiang Y, van den Brink J, de Vries RP, Chen L, Zhang J, Ma L, Wang C, Zhou Z: Construction of a cellulase hyper-expression system in Trichoderma reesei by promoter and enzyme engineering. Microb Cell Fact. 2012, 11: 21-32. 10.1186/1475-2859-11-21View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Theberge M, Lacaze P, Shareck F, Morosoli R, Kluepfel D: Purification and characterization of an endoglucanase from Streptomyces lividans 66 and DNA sequence of the gene. Appl Environ Microb. 1992, 58: 815-820.Google Scholar
- Wittmann S, Shareck F, Kluepfel D, Morosoli R: Purification and characterization of the CelB endoglucanase from Streptomyces lividans 66 and DNA sequence of the encoding gene. Appl Environ Microb. 1994, 60: 1701-1703.Google Scholar
- Irdani T, Perito B, Mastromei G: Characterization of a streptomyces rochei endoglucanase. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1996, 782: 173-181. 10.1111/j.1749-6632.1996.tb40558.xView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ventorino V, Amore A, Faraco V, Blaiotta G, Pepe O: Selection of cellulolytic bacteria for processing of cellulosic biomass. J Biotechnol. 2010, 150: S181-S181.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bloom JD, Labthavikul ST, Otey CR, Arnold FH: Protein stability promotes evolvability. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2006, 103: 5869-5874. 10.1073/pnas.0510098103View ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.