- Open Access
Decolorization of industrial synthetic dyes using engineered Pseudomonas putida cells with surface-immobilized bacterial laccase
© Wang et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2012
- Received: 20 January 2012
- Accepted: 19 May 2012
- Published: 11 June 2012
Microbial laccases are highly useful in textile effluent dye biodegradation. However, the bioavailability of cellularly expressed or purified laccases in continuous operations is usually limited by mass transfer impediment or enzyme regeneration difficulty. Therefore, this study develops a regenerable bacterial surface-displaying system for industrial synthetic dye decolorization, and evaluates its effects on independent and continuous operations.
A bacterial laccase (WlacD) was engineered onto the cell surface of the solvent-tolerant bacterium Pseudomonas putida to construct a whole-cell biocatalyst. Ice nucleation protein (InaQ) anchor was employed, and the ability of 1 to 3 tandemly aligned N-terminal repeats to direct WlacD display were compared. Immobilized WlacD was determined to be surface-displayed in functional form using Western blot analysis, immunofluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, and whole-cell enzymatic activity assay. Engineered P. putida cells were then applied to decolorize the anthraquinone dye Acid Green (AG) 25 and diazo-dye Acid Red (AR) 18. The results showed that decolorization of both dyes is Cu2+- and mediator-independent, with an optimum temperature of 35°C and pH of 3.0, and can be stably performed across a temperature range of 15°C to 45°C. A high activity toward AG25 (1 g/l) with relative decolorization values of 91.2% (3 h) and 97.1% (18 h), as well as high activity to AR18 (1 g/l) by 80.5% (3 h) and 89.0% (18 h), was recorded. The engineered system exhibited a comparably high activity compared with those of separate dyes in a continuous three-round shake-flask decolorization of AG25/AR18 mixed dye (each 1 g/l). No significant decline in decolorization efficacy was noted during first two-rounds but reaction equilibriums were elongated, and the residual laccase activity eventually decreased to low levels. However, the decolorizing capacity of the system was easily retrieved via a subsequent 4-h cell culturing.
This study demonstrates, for the first time, the methodology by which the engineered P. putida with surface-immobilized laccase was successfully used as regenerable biocatalyst for biodegrading synthetic dyes, thereby opening new perspectives in the use of biocatalysis in industrial dye biotreatment.
- Dye decolorization
- Cell surface display
- Pseudomonas putida
- Whole-cell biocatalyst
Laccases (EC 184.108.40.206, benzenediol:oxygen oxidoreductase) are a diverse family of multi-copper enzymes that oxidize a broad range of aromatic compounds including orthodiphenols, p-dihydroxybenzenes, aminophenols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and aromatic polyamines . They are also involved in diverse biochemical processes, such as oxidization of various non-aromatic compounds and metal oxides, plant lignification, cellular pigment production, fungal pathogenesis, and resistance to UV and H2O2, among others [2–4]. These enzymes have received particular interest in commercial applications of treating industrial phenolic substrates because they are biodegradable, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly [5–7].
Laccases are widely found in fungi, plants, and various bacteria [8, 9]. Although fungal and bacterial laccases have similar structures, their amino acid sequences are quite different . In addition, bacterial laccases often occur as monomers, whereas certain fungal laccases occur as isoenzymes that normally oligomerize to form multimeric complexes [10, 11]. In recent years, bacterial laccases have gained increasing attention for their potential in biodegrading environmentally important phenolic pollutants because of their relatively high production rate, high thermostability, and wider pH range, among others [12, 13].
Textile dyes are a class of highly diverse chemicals, which includes numerous organic chromophoric compounds and synthetic products, typically the azo-, anthraquinone-, indophenol-, triphenylmethane-, and heterocycle-containing dyes, among others [6, 14]. Contamination caused by textile dyes from industrial effluent has become a major environmental concern, because these dyes are toxic or are cross-coupled into toxic or carcinogenic metabolites and are relatively recalcitrant to degradation, significantly threatening the ecosystem [6, 15]. Conventional treatments for textile effluent that include physicochemical methods, such as the use of activated carbon, chemical flocculation, and filtration or coagulation , have been proven uneconomical or ineffective . Alternatively, biological process based on laccases is a promising solution for treating such effluents. Several previous investigations using fungal laccases have demonstrated the feasibility of such approaches [6, 7]. However, fungal laccases have disadvantages, especially low production rate and complicated enzyme regenerability although they are predominant in the biotreatment of textile dyes . The use of bacterial laccases has recently opened new perspectives on these applications. Several studies have described bacterial laccase-based approaches, such as Bacillus spore-bound laccase used at high temperatures and pH values , a laccase from Streptomyces coelicolor used under alkaline conditions , mutated Bacillus licheniformis CotA variants with high expression level and high activity , and laccase-active bacterial consortiums used for bioremediation of various textile dyes [16, 19–21].
A successful system for laccase-based textile dye biodegradation should ensure enzyme functionality and maximize catalytic efficiency in high pollutant concentrations. Moreover, the facile regeneration capacity for continuous application of the enzyme would be particularly valuable for such a system. Although certain previous strategies using immobilized or spore-bound bacterial laccases have shown enzymatic decolorization effects [12, 13], restriction for the reuse of matrix-immobilized enzymes and possible shortcomings for spore-bound laccases, such as substrate slack or limited diffusion caused by their exosporium barriers should also be considered. By contrast, our previous work showed that bacterial cell surface-immobilized laccase was efficient in oxidizing phenolic substrates and is, especially, a regenerable whole-cell catalyst . Hence, the bacterial surface display of laccase has been considered a better alternative for degrading toxic dyes from textile effluents.
The surface display of foreign enzyme proteins on live bacterial cells allows direct enzymatic reaction on cell surface, eliminating mass transfer limitation and increasing reaction rates [23, 24]. Moreover, a stable and regenerable cell platform is apparently conducive to retain the activity of surface-displayed enzymes [25, 26]. Bacterial display systems are normally grouped into those that allow N-terminal, C-terminal, and “sandwich” fusions. These fusions are achieved by genetically incorporating heterologous protein with various anchoring proteins that have transmembrane transport activity and capacity to bind to outer membranes as well as those surface-appendiculate structures. Among these anchoring proteins, ice nucleation protein (INP) from Pseudomonas syringae has been generally regarded as one of the most efficient anchor proteins for Gram-negative bacteria [24, 27]. Previous studies have shown that both full-length and truncated INP variants can immobilize target proteins [28, 29]. Therefore, INP-anchored system has been mostly used to display peptides or proteins of various Gram-negative bacteria because of the broad availability of this anchor. However, the INP-mediated surface display method has not been used thus far to improve the catalytic efficiency of bacterial laccases although various reports have described the successful application of INP-anchored functional proteins.
Synthetic dyes represent the largest class of dyes applied in the textile and dyeing industries . These dyes cannot be easily removed from effluents via conventional sewage treatment or readily degraded under natural conditions. In this study, the N-terminal moiety of a newly identified INP (InaQ) was used as the anchoring motif to display the fusion protein with a mutated bacterial laccase (WlacD) onto the surface of solvent-tolerant P. putida AB92019 cells. The expression, as well as surface localization, of fusion proteins with 1 to 3 tandemly aligned InaQ-N repeats and WlacD in the engineered P. putida cells were analyzed using several assays. The enzymatic activity of intact cells expressing these fusion enzymes was comparatively determined. The optimized engineered strain was then applied to decolorize two synthetic dyes. The relative decolorization levels of these dyes, either in separate or combined form, and the decolorizing effect, as well as regenerability of the system, in a continuous three-round shake-flask trial was investigated.
Construction and expression of InaQ-N/WlacD fusion proteins
The Western blot profile of the expressed proteins revealed clear signs of all corresponding proteins from subcellular fractions of P. putida MB284 (~74 kDa, Figure 2b, lanes 2 to 4), MB285 (~93 kDa, Figure 2b, lanes 5 to 7), and MB286 (~112 kDa, Figure 2b, lanes 8 to 10), whereas none was found in the control (Figure 2b, lane 1).
Surface localization analysis of fusion proteins
Effect of different tandem-aligned anchors on display efficiency
The transformed P. putida cells expressing fusion proteins comprised single, two, or three tandem-aligned InaQ-N repeats, and laccase WlacD were compared through their display efficiencies using flow cytometry analysis. An increase in the anchoring motifs in the two or three InaQ-N repeats enhanced surface immobilization efficiency over that of single InaQ-N fusion protein [72.8% and 65.0% vs. 52.4%, respectively; Figure 3b(iii), (iv), and (ii)]. However, increasing the InaQ-N repeats to three did not result in a corresponding increase in surface immobilization efficiency compared with that of the two InaQ-N repeats, as indicated by the greater surface-immobilization efficiency of the anchoring motif with two tandem aligned repeats [Figure 3b(iii)] compared with the (InaQ-N)3 anchor [Figure 3b(iv)].
Whole-cell laccase activity of recombinant strains
Decolorization of separate anthraquinone-dye and azo-dye by P. putida MB285 cells
Dye decolorization of separate AG25 and AR18 by P. putida MB285 cells without Cu 2+ and different temperature and pH conditions
The influence of temperature on decolorizing efficacy was evaluated across the range of 15°C to 85°C. The results showed that decolorization of both AR18 [Figure 6b(i)] and AG25 [Figure 6b(ii)] was conducted at 35°C and 25°C with relatively high reactivity than those at other temperatures, in which a relative decolorization of 73.8% and 61.7% for AR18, 87.5% and 82.4% for AG25 were reached after only 5 min. Each highest relative decolorization value was recorded at 35°C in the experimental time-course. A relatively steady decolorization of AR18 and AG25 was also observed at 15 and 45°C, where almost equivalent decolorization values with those at 35 and 25°C were achieved in 3 h. However, decolorization appeared to be ineffective at temperatures higher than 65°C.
Figure 6c showed that the decolorization of either AR18 or AG25 required an obligate pH value of 3.0, and the activity was apparently lower for AR18 than that for AG25 based on other pH values.
Continuous decolorization of the AG25/AR18 mixed dye
The whole-cell laccase activity of P. putida MB285 cells was monitored during the decolorization time-course, indicating a steadily decreasing pattern at each round of decolorization (Figure 8d). Interestingly, the cells still maintained high decolorization activity to AG25 by 98.0% (in the second 18 h) and an activity to AR18 by 28.5% (in the second 18 h) in the continuous second-round decolorization reaction although the residual whole-cell laccase retained only approximately 50% of the initial activity after the first-round decolorization reaction in 18 h (Figure 8d). However, the residual whole-cell laccase activity was reduced to a low level (approximately 20% of the initial activity of first-round decolorization) after the second-round reaction (in the second 18 h) (Figure 8d), suggesting that engineered cells are incapable of further dye degradation.
The reaction solution was removed and the remaining cells were cultured for 4 h by directly adding LB medium to the residual cell inocula to regenerate the decolorizing activity of the system. The decolorization efficacy of either AG25 (99.9%, 18 h) or AR18 (47.5%, 18 h) was retrieved at the first-round level (Figure 8c) in the third-round decolorization reaction with regenerated bacteria. The data of the residual laccase activity after regenerative culturing and the third-round reaction were in agreement with that of the cells after first-round decolorization reaction (Figure 8d).
The display of heterologous proteins on the surface of target bacteria has been accomplished over the past decade, exhibiting promising prospects in several biotechnological processes. In the present study, an in vitro genetically modified bacterial laccase WlacD was functionally immobilized onto the surface of P. putida cells through an optimized ice nucleation protein anchor. This system was then used as a whole-cell biocatalyst to degrade two industrially used synthetic dyes in laboratory trials. The significant decolorization effect on the tested dyes using the optimized laccase-displaying system, together with their distinctive features, such as regenerability and eliminability of mass transfer limitation or passive diffusion of substrates, suggests the potentials of this strategy in textile dye effluent treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first approach to decolorize industrial synthetic dyes using engineered bacterial cells with surface-immobilized laccase.
P. putida is a well-known solvent-tolerant bacterium capable of utilizing a wide range of inorganic and organic compounds, rendering it an attractive host for developing cell surface display systems for environmental or biotechnological applications. Several previous studies have described the methodology by which surface-immobilized heterologous enzymes or other proteins can be used as whole-cell catalysts [25, 28, 32–34] or bioadsorbents . In these approaches, the full-length or truncated INP anchors from P. syringae were mostly utilized as anchoring motifs to construct various surface display systems. INP-mediated surface display systems have been extensively exploited from Escherichia coli to Pseudomonas sp., and Vibrio sp., among others [23, 24, 27]. However, insufficient surface-bound target proteins less than 50% of the total intracellularly expressed proteins either in E. coli[35, 36] or in P. putida[34, 35] remains to be improved. In the current study, two and three tandem-aligned InaQ-Ns were employed as combined anchors to compare the surface-displaying activity of fusion incorporations to promote surface display efficiency of an INP-mediated system. Successful display of 665 aa (InaQ-N/WlacD), 840 aa [(InaQ-N)2/WlacD], and 1015 aa [(InaQ-N)3/WlacD] proteins using the increased InaQ-N anchors improved the display efficiency by increasing the number of anchor proteins (Figure 23 and 4). However, these results also revealed that the translocation and transport of fusion proteins mediated by InaQ-N can be limited to certain amino acid residues. Thus, transport and surface binding should be coordinated, as was indicated by the highest display efficiency exhibited by the two tandem aligned, in contrast to the lower activity of those with single InaQ-N anchor and the decreased activity when the anchor numbers were increased to three (Figure 3 and 4). Theoretically, numerous anchoring motifs probably contributed to the increase in surface binding efficiency, thus, the exceeding length of the fusion protein (in the case of three InaQ-N repeats) may have also decreased the transmembrane and transport activity while targeting the cell surface.
We have previously engineered B. thuringiensis vegetative cells and spores with surface-immobilized similar laccase, which demonstrated that laccase can be targeted onto the cell surface without radically altering enzymatic activity [22, 37]. Compared with the B. thuringiensis system, the current P. putida system demonstrates several advantages. First, it exhibits a relatively high whole-cell enzymatic activity. Although the activity of B. thuringiensis vegetative cells seems comparable, a low whole-spore activity has been observed for spores. However, spores are the main growth phase of B. thuringiensis in natural environments, and its vegetative cells are typically converted autogenetically into spores under adverse conditions. Second, the P. putida system mediated by InaQ-N allows the display of relatively large proteins (over 1,000 residues in length), in contrast to less than 500 residues for the B. thuringiensis system . Hence, the developed P. putida system is more suitable for dye decolorization.
The transformed P. putida MB285 cells exhibited high whole-cell enzymatic activity against anthraquinone dye AG25 and a remarkable activity against diazo dye AR18, suggesting that surface-immobilized laccases were anchored stably in the functional confirmation (Figures 56 and 7). These results are in agreement with previously reported purified fungal laccases, which showed extremely high activity in the decolorization of anthraquinone-like dyes [38, 39], but reduced activity against azo-like dyes . This finding may be attributed to the different structural features of the dyes, i.e., unlike azo dyes, anthraquinone dyes are direct substrates of laccase-based oxidation. Interestingly, the control strain P. putida AB92019 exhibited a slightly higher decolorization activity for AR18 than that for AG25 (Figure 7). Several previous investigations have reported that certain Pseudomonas strains produced azo-dye-degrading enzymes, such as azoreductase [41, 42]. Therefore, it is of interest to identify whether the background degrading activity of AR18 reflects a low level expression of azoreductase in the control strain.
In natural environments, certain synthetic dyes, such as azo dyes, are particularly recalcitrant to decolorization. Although laccase-based oxidation can be utilized to provide new approaches, previous investigations revealed that effective degradation of a variety of azo dyes significantly depend on the presence of some redox mediators [6, 7, 43], which is cost consuming. However, using some mediators also leads to the formation of highly unstable radical intermediates that could significantly inactivate laccase [44, 45]. In this study, the P. putida surface-immobilized laccase system is capable of decolorizing azo dye (AR18) without any redox mediator. This result strongly contrasts with data obtained with some fungal laccases that require mediators for decolorization activity [46–49]. In addition, laccases use the distinctive redox ability of copper ions to catalyze the oxidation of aromatic substrates, thus, whether the system requires additional supplement of copper ions during the reaction was investigated. The results showed that copper ion addition is not necessary for separate or mixed dyes. Therefore, this system is advantageous because of its independence from mediators and copper ions.
High thermostability of an enzyme system is generally considered as an advantageous for industrial enzyme-degrading processes in terms of increasing reaction rate and decreasing mass transfer limitation under high temperatures. Unlike several previously described fungal laccases that had very high optimum reaction temperatures at 50°C to 80°C [50–52], the bacterial laccase WlacD was found thermally stable at 0°C to 25°C, with maximum reactivity at 25°C, but inactivated rapidly above 40°C . The cell platform conferred to the surface-displayed laccase improved thermostability, with respect to the optimum temperature of 35°C and an operational temperature range of 15°C to 45°C shown in this study (Figure 6b). Although the current system is still demarcated as moderate temperature-dependent, an efficient decolorization of either separate or mixed dyes was achieved, given the remarkably high functionality and insignificant mass transfer limitation of the system compared with those that require high temperature to maximize the activity and eliminate mass transfer problem. Therefore, a high degrading efficacy with relatively wide applicable temperatures and without significant mass transfer limitation would be beneficial to validate this engineered system for multipurpose requirements of industrial decolorization or detoxification treatments.
In continuous decolorization experiments, the system exhibited remarkable efficacy and good performance to mixed dyes. A greater increase in decolorization level, selectivity, performance, and regenerability of engineered P. putida cells is more likely achieved using a bioreactor or fed-batch process. However, displaying additional thermally stable laccases, such as fungal laccases, onto the surface of target bacteria should also be considered. The development of capacity-promoted P. putida surface-displayed laccase systems is now one of our primary goals.
The feasibility of engineered P. putida cells with surface-immobilized bacterial laccase for the decolorization of two industrial synthetic dyes has been demonstrated. Different tandem-aligned anchor repeats were used to obtain an optimized cell surface display system. The displayed laccase exhibited high reactivity to either single or mixed dyes, which was performed at 35°C with maximum activity, and were stably conducted across a temperature range of 15°C to 45°C. The decolorization reactions were Cu2+- and mediator-independent, but an obligate pH value was required for maximal decolorization. Continuous three-round shake-flask experiments showed that the system retained decolorization efficiency during the first two rounds, and that both decolorization and whole-cell laccase activity can be reverted to initial levels using a simple regeneration process. This study is the first to test a regenerative engineered bacterial system in the biocatalysis of synthetic dyes.
Dyes and chemicals
Bacterial strains, plasmids, and culture conditions
Bacterial strains and plasmids used in the current study
E. coli DH5α
supE 44Δlac U169(Φ80 lacZ ΔM15) hdsR 17 recA 1 endA 1 gyrA 96 thi- 1 relA 1
Cbs, wild-type strain with pronounced vitality in wild environments
P. putida CCTCC AB92019 construct harboring pMB281
P. putida CCTCC AB92019 construct harboring pMB282
P. putida CCTCC AB92019 construct harboring pMB283
AmprCbr, E. coli–P. putida shuttle vector containing P oprL promoter and inaQ-N/gfp fusion gene, 6142 bp
AmprCbr, E. coli–P. putida shuttle vector containing P oprL promoter and (inaQ-N)2/gfp fusion gene, 6670 bp
Laboratory stock (unpublished)
AmprCbr, E. coli–P. putida shuttle vector containing P oprL promoter and (inaQ-N)3/gfp fusion gene, 7198 bp
Laboratory stock (unpublished)
Ampr; the recombinant plasmid carrying the mutated wlacD gene; 8,867 bp
AmprCbr, E. coli–P. putida shuttle vector containing P oprL promoter and inaQ-N/wlacD fusion gene, 6872 bp
AmprCbr, E. coli–P. putida shuttle vector containing P oprL promoter and (inaQ-N)2/wlacD fusion gene, 7404 bp
AmprCbr, E. coli–P. putida shuttle vector containing P oprL promoter and (inaQ-N)3/wlacD fusion gene, 7926 bp
All strains were grown in Luria–Bertani medium (LB), unless specified otherwise. Recombinant E. coli cells were cultured in LB containing 100 g/ml ampicillin (Amp) at 37°C, whereas recombinant P. putida strains were grown in LB containing 500 g/ml carbenicillin (Cb) at 28°C.
Plasmid construction and transformation
Total bacterial DNA was extracted using a standard procedure . The wlacD gene was amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from the plasmid pMB172  with primers Flac: 5′−CCGAGATCTATGCAACGTCGTGATTTC−3′ (Bgl II site underlined) and Rlac: 5′−AAAGAATTCTTATACCGTAAACCCTAAC−3′ (Eco RI site underlined). The PCR-amplified fragment was sequenced before digestion with Bgl II and Eco RI. The digested fragment was then ligated to the Bgl II/Eco RI site of a previously constructed plasmid pMB104 that harbors recombinant inaQ-N/gfp fusion gene under the control of a constitutive promoter P orpL (the gfp was positioned at the Bgl II/Eco RI site) , and was ligated to the plasmids pMB111 and pMB112 that harbor (inaQ-N)2/gfp and (inaQ-N)3/gfp (data are unpublished) genes, respectively, yielded the plasmids pMB281, pMB282, and pMB283, which harbor the fusion genes inaQ-N/walcD, (inaQ-N)2/walcD, and (inaQ-N)3/walcD, respectively (Figure 2).
Transformation of E. coli was performed following ″Protocol 25″, as described previously , whereas the transformation of recombinant plasmids into P. putida AB92019 was performed using a previously described method .
Cell suspensions were passaged twice through a French Pressure Cell (Thermo, USA) at 20,000 psi. The disrupted mixtures were then fractionated following the procedures described previously .
SDS-PAGE and western blot analysis
Fusion proteins InaQ-N/WlacD, (InaQ-N)2/WlacD and (InaQ-N)3/WlacD prepared from whole cell fraction (WC), cytoplasmic fraction (CP), and outer membrane fraction (OM) of the transformed P. putida cells were analyzed through SDS-PAGE using 12.5%, 10%, and 10% polyacrylamide gels, respectively. The proteins in the gels were then transferred onto Hybond-polyvinylidene fluoride membranes (Amershan, USA). Western blot analysis was further performed using polyclonal WlacD antiserum  as primary antibodies. Other following procedures were as described previously .
Immunofluorescence microscopy and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis
Immunofluorescence microscopic observation and FACS analysis of recombinant P. putida cells were performed following previously described procedures , except for using polyclonal anti-WlacD antiserum as primary antibodies. FACS measurements were recorded as the percentage of total WlacD-labeled cells relative to the total Cy5 fluorescence.
Measurement of whole-cell laccase activity
Whole-cell laccase enzymatic activity was measured with ABTS as substrate at 25°C following a previously described method . The reaction mixture contained 0.5 mM ABTS, 0.1 M sodium acetate buffer (pH 3.0), 0.1 M CuCl2, and a suitable amount of recombinant P. putida cells. The whole-cell WlacD enzymatic activity was expressed in units. One unit of enzymatic activity was defined as the amount that oxidized 1 μmol of ABTS per min.
Decolorization of separate or mixed dyes
The absorbance value of dyes was recorded using a UV/VIS spectrophotometer (DU-800 Nucleic Acids/Protein Analyzer, Beckman Coulter). The decolorization of AR18 and AG25 using recombinant P. putida cells was tested with and without Cu2+ addition. The reaction mixture (5 ml) contained 1 g/l dye (unless stated otherwise), 70 mM sodium acetate buffer (pH 3.0), and the harvested recombinant P. putida MB285 cells at a concentration of approximately 1 × 108 cells/ml to 1 × 109 cells/ml. The mixtures were incubated at 25°C and shaken at 200 rpm. The absorbance of the supernates was then spectrophotometrically measured at 506 nm for AR18 and at 639 nm for AG25 at different time intervals. Control samples of P. putida AB92019 cells were run in parallel.
For the decolorization experiments of independent AR18 or AG25 at different temperatures (15°C to 85°C) and pH values (pH 3.0, 5.0, 7.0, and 8.5), prior to decolorization determination, the suspensions of P. putida MB285 cells were maintained in a water bath until the given temperature is reached or the pH was adjusted into the given value. The reaction was immediately run by adding the cell suspension into a similarly preheated or pH-preadjusted reaction solution. The absorbance of the supernates was then monitored in time course.
For continuous three-round decolorization experiments, the decolorizing activity of the mixed AG25 and AR18 (each 1 g/l at the final concentration of the reaction mixtures) was tested in shake-flask trials at 200 ml reaction solution at pH 3.0, 25°C, 200 rpm shaking, and without Cu2+. After the first-round reaction, the cells were harvested via centrifugation and were directly used for the second-round reaction upon similar conditions. The supernate was removed through centrifugation after the second-round reaction, and the 100 ml LB medium was directly added into the flask to allow the growth of residual cells under 25°C, 200 rpm for 4 h without strictly aseptic operations. A third-round decolorization reaction followed under similar reaction conditions after removal of the medium via centrifugation.
The activity was expressed as the relative decolorization value, which was calculated as follows:
Relative decolorization value (%) = [(A0 − A)/A0] × 100
A0 − Initial absorbance
A − Final absorbance.
Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS 13.0 statistical software. All data presented are the averages of at least three assays. Statistical significance was defined as P < 0.05.
The authors are grateful to Prof. Ping Shen for donating the P. putida CCTCC AB92019. This work was supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 31070111, 40830527 and 30670054) and was supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Program No. 2012MBDX011).
- Kosman DJ: Multicopper oxidases: a workshop on copper coordination chemistry, electron transfer, and metallophysiology. J Biol Inorg Chem. 2010, 15: 15-28. 10.1007/s00775-009-0590-9.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Francis CA, Tebo BM: cumA multicopper oxidase genes from diverse Mn(II)-oxidizing and non-Mn(II)-oxidizing Pseudomonas strains. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2001, 67: 4272-4278. 10.1128/AEM.67.9.4272-4278.2001.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Martins LO, Soares CM, Pereira MM, Teixeira M, Costa T, Jones GH, Henriques AO: Molecular and biochemical characterization of a highly stable bacterial laccase that occurs as a structural component of the Bacillus subtilis endospore coat. J Biol Chem. 2002, 277: 18849-18859. 10.1074/jbc.M200827200.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sanchez-Amat A, Lucas-Elio P, Fernandez E, Garcia-Borron JC, Solano F: Molecular cloning and functional characterization of a unique multipotent polyphenol oxidase from Marinomonas mediterranea. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2001, 1547: 104-116. 10.1016/S0167-4838(01)00174-1.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Dube E, Shareck F, Hurtubise Y, Beauregard M, Daneault C: Decolourization of recalcitrant dyes with a laccase from Streptomyces coelicolor under alkaline conditions. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 2008, 35: 1123-1129. 10.1007/s10295-008-0391-0.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Banat IM, Nigam P, Singh D, Marchant R: Microbial decolorization of textile-dye-containing effluents: a review. Bioresour Technol. 1996, 58: 217-227. 10.1016/S0960-8524(96)00113-7.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Couto SR, Toca-Herrera JL: Industrial and biotechnological applications of laccass: a review. Biotechnol Adv. 2006, 24: 500-513. 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2006.04.003.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Claus H: Laccases and their occurrence in prokaryotes. Arch Microbiol. 2003, 179: 145-150.Google Scholar
- Alexandre G, Zhulin IB: Laccases are widespread in bacteria. Tibtech. 2000, 18: 41-42. 10.1016/S0167-7799(99)01406-7.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Claus H: Laccases: structure, reactions, distribution. Micron. 2004, 35: 93-96. 10.1016/j.micron.2003.10.029.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sakurai T, Kataoka K: Basic and applied features of multicopper oxidases, CueO, bilirubin oxidase, and laccase. Chem Rec. 2007, 7: 220-229. 10.1002/tcr.20125.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Held C, Kandelbauer A, Schroeder M, Cavaco-Paulo A, Guebitz G: Biotransformation of phenolics with laccase containing bacterial spores. Environ Chem Lett. 2005, 3: 74-77. 10.1007/s10311-005-0006-1.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hilden K, Hakala TK, Lundell T: Thermotolerant and thermostable laccases. Biotechnol Lett. 2009, 31: 1117-1128. 10.1007/s10529-009-9998-0.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zollinger H: Color Chemistry: Syntheses, Properties, and Applications of Organic Dyes and Pigments. 2003, John Wiley-VCH Publishers, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Levine WG: Metabolism of azo dyes: implication for detoxication and activation. Drug Metab Rev. 1991, 23: 253-309. 10.3109/03602539109029761.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Jadhav JP, Kalyani DC, Telke AA, Phugare SS, Govindwar SP: Evaluation of the efficacy of a bacterial consortium for the removal of color, reduction of heavy metals, and toxicity from textile dye effluent. Bioresour Technol. 2010, 101: 165-173. 10.1016/j.biortech.2009.08.027.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Telke AA, Joshi SM, Jadhav SU, Tamboli DP, Govindwar SP: Decolorization and detoxification of Congo red and textile industry effluent by an isolated bacterium Pseudomonas sp. SU-EBT. Biodegradation. 2010, 21: 283-296. 10.1007/s10532-009-9300-0.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Koschorreck K, Schmid RD, Urlacher VB: Improving the functional expression of a Bacillus licheniformis laccase by random and site-directed mutagenesis. BMC Biotechnol. 2009, 9: 12-10.1186/1472-6750-9-12.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Jadhav UU, Dawkar VV, Ghodake GS, Govindwar SP: Biodegradation of Direct Red 5B, a textile dye by newly isolated Comamonas sp. UVS. J Hazard Mater. 2008, 158: 507-516. 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.01.099.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Senan RC, Abraham TE: Bioremediation of textile azo dyes by aerobic bacterial consortium. Biodegradation. 2004, 15: 275-280.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Phugare SS, Kalyani DC, Patil AV, Jadhav JP: Textile dye degradation by bacterial consortium and subsequent toxicological analysis of dye and dye metabolites using cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and oxidative stress studies. J Hazard Mater. 2011, 186: 713-723. 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.11.049.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Shao X, Jiang M, Yu Z, Cai H, Li L: Surface display of heterologous proteins in Bacillus thuringiensis using a peptidoglycan hydrolase anchor. Microb Cell Fact. 2009, 8: 48-10.1186/1475-2859-8-48.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Daugherty PS: Protein engineering with bacterial display. Curr Opin Struct Biol. 2007, 17: 474-480. 10.1016/j.sbi.2007.07.004.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lee SY, Choi JH, Xu Z: Microbial cell-surface display. Trends Biotechnol. 2003, 21: 45-52. 10.1016/S0167-7799(02)00006-9.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lee SH, Choi JI, Han MJ, Choi JH, Lee SY: Display of lipase on the cell surface of Escherichia coli using OprF as an anchor and its application to enantioselective resolution in organic solvent. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2005, 90: 223-230. 10.1002/bit.20399.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lee SH, Lee SY, Park BC: Cell surface display of lipase in Pseudomonas putida KT2442 using OprF as an anchoring motif and its biocatalytic applications. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2005, 71: 8581-8586. 10.1128/AEM.71.12.8581-8586.2005.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wu CH, Mulchandani A, Chen W: Versatile microbial surface-display for environmental remediation and biofuels production. Trends Microbiol. 2008, 16: 181-188. 10.1016/j.tim.2008.01.003.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Jung HC, Kwon SJ, Pan JG: Display of a thermostable lipase on the surface of a solvent-resistant bacterium, Pseudomonas putida GM730, and its applications in whole-cell biocatalysis. BMC Biotechnol. 2006, 6: 23-10.1186/1472-6750-6-23.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Jung HC, Lebeault JM, Pan JG: Surface display of Zymomonas mobilis levansucrase by using the ice-nucleation protein of Pseudomonas syringae. Nat Biotechnol. 1998, 16: 576-580. 10.1038/nbt0698-576.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- van der Zee FP, Villaverde S: Combined anaerobic-aerobic treatment of azo dyes - A short review of bioreactor studies. Water Res. 2005, 39: 1425-1440. 10.1016/j.watres.2005.03.007.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Shao X, Gao Y, Jiang M, Li L: Deletion and site-directed mutagenesis of laccase from Shigella dysenteriae results in enhanced enzymatic activity and thermostability. Enzyme Microb Tech. 2009, 44: 274-280. 10.1016/j.enzmictec.2008.12.013.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yang C, Cai N, Dong M, Jiang H, Li J, Qiao C, Mulchandani A, Chen W: Surface display of MPH on Pseudomonas putida JS444 using ice nucleation protein and its application in detoxification of organophosphates. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2008, 99: 30-37. 10.1002/bit.21535.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Shimazu M, Nguyen A, Mulchandani A, Chen W: Cell surface display of organophosphorus hydrolase in Pseudomonas putida using an ice-nucleation protein anchor. Biotechnol Prog. 2003, 19: 1612-1614. 10.1021/bp0340640.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Li Q, Ni H, Meng S, He Y, Yu Z, Li L: Suppressing Erwinia caratovora pathogenicity by projecting N-acyl homoserine lactonase onto the surface of Pseudomonas putida cells. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2011, 21: 1330-1335. 10.4014/jmb.1107.07011.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Li Q, Yu Z, Shao X, He J, Li L: Improved phosphate biosorption by bacterial surface display of phosphate-binding protein utilizing ice nucleation protein. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2009, 299: 44-52. 10.1111/j.1574-6968.2009.01724.x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Li L, Kang DG, Cha HJ: Functional display of foreign protein on surface of Escherichia coli using N-terminal domain of ice nucleation protein. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2004, 85: 214-221. 10.1002/bit.10892.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Jiang M, Shao X, Ni H, Yu Z, Li L: In vivo and in vitro surface display of heterologous proteins on Bacillus thuringiensis vegetative cells and spores. Process Biochem. 2011, 46: 1861-1866. 10.1016/j.procbio.2011.05.022.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lu L, Zhao M, Zhang BB, Yu SY, Bian XJ, Wang W, Wang Y: Purification and characterization of laccase from Pycnoporus sanguineus and decolorization of an anthraquinone dye by the enzyme. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2007, 74: 1232-1239. 10.1007/s00253-006-0767-x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Guo M, Lu F, Liu M, Li T, Pu J, Wang N, Liang P, Zhang C: Purification of recombinant laccase from Trametes versicolor in Pichia methanolica and its use for the decolorization of anthraquinone dye. Biotechnol Lett. 2008, 30: 2091-2096. 10.1007/s10529-008-9817-z.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lu L, Zhao M, Liang SC, Zhao LY, Li DB, Zhang BB: Production and synthetic dyes decolourization capacity of a recombinant laccase from Pichia pastoris. J Appl Microbiol. 2009, 107: 1149-1156. 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2009.04291.x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yang G, He Y, Cai Z, Zhao X, Wang L, Wang L: Isolation and characterization of Pseudomonas putida WLY for reactive brilliant red x-3b decolorization. Afr J Biotechnol. 2011, 10: 10456-10464.Google Scholar
- Hu TL: Kinetics of azoreductase and assessment of toxicity of metabolic products from azo dyes by Pseudomonas luteola. Water Sci Technol. 2001, 43: 261-269.Google Scholar
- Murugesan K, Kalaichelvan PT: Synthetic dye decolourization by white rot fungi. Indian J Exp Biol. 2003, 41: 1076-1087.Google Scholar
- Xu F, Kulys JJ, Duke K, Li K, Krikstopaitis K, Deussen HJ, Abbate E, Galinyte V, Schneider P: Redox chemistry in laccase-catalyzed oxidation of N-hydroxy compounds. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2000, 66: 2052-2056. 10.1128/AEM.66.5.2052-2056.2000.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pereira L, Coelho AV, Viegas CA, Santos MM, Robalo MP, Martins LO: Enzymatic biotransformation of the azo dye Sudan Orange G with bacterial CotA-laccase. J Biotechnol. 2009, 139: 68-77. 10.1016/j.jbiotec.2008.09.001.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Khlifi R, Belbahri L, Woodward S, Ellouz M, Dhouib A, Sayadi S, Mechichi T: Decolourization and detoxification of textile industry wastewater by the laccase-mediator system. J Hazard Mater. 2010, 175: 802-808. 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.10.079.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Soares GM, de Amorim MT, Costa-Ferreira M: Use of laccase together with redox mediators to decolourize Remazol Brilliant Blue R. J Biotechnol. 2001, 89: 123-129. 10.1016/S0168-1656(01)00302-9.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hu MR, Chao YP, Zhang GQ, Xue ZQ, Qian S: Laccase-mediator system in the decolorization of different types of recalcitrant dyes. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 2009, 36: 45-51. 10.1007/s10295-008-0471-1.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Rodriguez Couto S, Sanroman M, Gubitz GM: Influence of redox mediators and metal ions on synthetic acid dye decolourization by crude laccase from Trametes hirsuta. Chemosphere. 2005, 58: 417-422. 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2004.09.033.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Morozova OV, Shumakovich GP, Gorbacheva MA, Shleev SV, Yaropolov AI: "Blue" laccases. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2007, 72: 1136-1150. 10.1134/S0006297907100112.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Han MJ, Choi HT, Song HG: Purification and characterization of laccase from the white rot fungus Trametes versicolor. J Microbiol. 2005, 43: 555-560.Google Scholar
- Wang HX, Ng TB: Purification of a laccase from fruiting bodies of the mushroom Pleurotus eryngii. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2006, 69: 521-525. 10.1007/s00253-005-0086-7.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ausubel FM, Brent R, Kingston RE, Moore DD, Seidman JG, Smith JA, Struhl K: Current Protocols in Molecular Biology. 2002, John Wiley & Sons, IncGoogle Scholar
- Sambrook J, Russell DW: Molecular cloning: a laboratory manual. 2001, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, New York, 3Google Scholar
- Iwasaki K, Uchiyama H, Yagi O, Kurabayashi T, Ishizuka K, Takamura Y: Transformation of Pseudomonas putida by electroporation. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 1994, 58: 851-854. 10.1271/bbb.58.851.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.