- Open Access
Isolation, characterization and heterologous expression of a novel chitosanase from Janthinobacterium sp. strain 4239
© Johnsen et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2010
- Received: 14 November 2009
- Accepted: 22 January 2010
- Published: 22 January 2010
Chitosanases (EC 188.8.131.52) hydrolyze the polysaccharide chitosan, which is composed of partially acetylated β-(1,4)-linked glucosamine residues. In nature, chitosanases are produced by a number of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as by fungi, probably with the primary role of degrading chitosan from fungal and yeast cell walls for carbon metabolism. Chitosanases may also be utilized in eukaryotic cell manipulation for intracellular delivery of molecules formulated with chitosan as well as for transformation of filamentous fungi by temporal modification of the cell wall structures.
However, the chitosanases used so far in transformation and transfection experiments show optimal activity at high temperature, which is incompatible with most transfection and transformation protocols. Thus, there is a need for chitosanases, which display activity at lower temperatures.
This paper describes the isolation of a chitosanase-producing, cold-active bacterium affiliated to the genus Janthinobacterium. The 876 bp chitosanase gene from the Janthinobacterium strain was isolated and characterized. The chitosanase was related to the Glycosyl Hydrolase family 46 chitosanases with Streptomyces chitosanase as the closest related (64% amino acid sequence identity). The chitosanase was expressed recombinantly as a periplasmic enzyme in Escherichia coli in amounts about 500 fold greater than in the native Janthinobacterium strain. Determination of temperature and pH optimum showed that the native and the recombinant chitosanase have maximal activity at pH 5-7 and at 45°C, but with 30-70% of the maximum activity at 10°C and 30°C, respectively.
A novel chitosanase enzyme and its corresponding gene was isolated from Janthinobacterium and produced recombinantly in E. coli as a periplasmic enzyme. The Janthinobacterium chitosanase displayed reasonable activity at 10°C to 30°C, temperatures that are preferred in transfection and transformation experiments.
- Glycosyl Hydrolase Family
Chitin, a polymer of acetylated β-(1,4)-linked glucosamine (GlcNAc) residues, is the second-most abundant polysaccharide in nature, where it constitutes the major structural component in a number of organisms, e.g. crustaceans, insects, nematodes and fungi. Chitosan, which is a partly deacetylated form of chitin, is less abundant but may be found in the cell wall of certain fungi, e.g. Zygomycetes [1, 2] and green algae like Chlorella . Chitin and chitosan have similar molecular structures, since both polysaccharides are made up of β-(1,4)-linked glucosamine (GlcN) residues, which are 50-100% acetylated (chitin) or 0-50% acetylated (chitosan) . In recent years, interest in oligosaccharides derived from chitin and especially from chitosan has increased considerably because these oligosaccharides are water-soluble and possess useful biological activities like antitumor and antimicrobial activities [5–10]. The oligosaccharides may be produced by chemical treatment of polymeric chitosan or may be derived from enzymatic hydrolysis of chitosan.
Enzymes capable of hydrolyzing chitosan, chitosanases (EC 184.108.40.206), may be found in a number of organisms, particularly in microorganisms. Chitosanases are classified into five glycoside hydrolase families: GH-5, GH-8, GH-46, GH-75 and GH-80 . Enzymes from families GH-5 and GH-8 may hydrolyze a number of other glycosides besides chitosan, whereas glycoside hydrolase families GH-46, GH-75 and GH-80 only comprise chitosanases. Among these true chitinases, the chitosanases from Streptomyces and Bacillus have been studied in detail with respect to e.g. catalytic features and molecular structure [12–15]. In addition to members of the genera Streptomyces and Bacillus, chitosanases have been isolated from a number of other Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria e.g. Acinetobacter sp. , Amycolatopsis sp. , Serratia marcescens , Pseudomonas sp. , Nocardioides sp. , Microbacterium sp. , as well as from fungi, e.g. Gongronella sp. , Aspergillus oryzae  and Fusarium solani .
Normally, gene delivery using chitosan microparticles will result in low transfection frequency compared to liposome mediated gene delivery . However, recently it has been shown that gene delivery of DNA complexed with chitosan into mammalian cells may be enhanced if a fungal chitosanase gene is co-expressed inside the cells . Similarly, hydrolytic enzymes, e.g. chitosanases, are used for transformation of filamentous fungi by modification of the cell wall structure, making the cell more accessible. So far, the chitosanases, which have been used in such transformation and transfection experiments, have shown optimal temperatures around 60°C, and the enzymes are hardly active at the low temperatures, which are preferable in transfection and transformation experiments. Therefore, we have screened a bacterial strain collection from Greenland and isolated a chitosanase-producing, cold-active Janthinobacterium sp. isolate. In this paper, we describe the isolation and characterization of a new chitosanase and we show that the enzyme may be produced heterologously in Escherichia coli resulting in high yields.
Isolation of chitosanase enzyme and gene from Janthinobacterium sp
Heterologous expression of Janthinobacterium chitosanase in E. coli
Cellular distribution of chitosanase activity
Chitosanase specific activitya units·OD600-1·ml-1
G6PD activityb %
E. coli BMS172
E. coli MGJ1042 (control)
Characterization of chitosanase from Janthinobacterium
Relative chitosanase activity on different substrates
Relative act (%)
Chitosan 80% DD, 1000 kDa
Chitosan 80% DD, 700 kDa
Chitosan 80% DD, 500 kDa
Chitosan 55% DD
Previously, Janthinobacterium strains degrading chitin have been reported [27, 28] but this report is the first to describe a chitosanase from the genus Janthinobacterium. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and zymographic staining revealed that two polypeptides with the apparent molecular weights of 27.5 and 33 kDa were able to hydrolyze chitosan (Fig. 2A, lane 2). This observation suggested that Janthinobacterium sp. strain 4239 harbours two different chitosanase genes, and that in the subsequent screening of the genomic library in E. coli only one of the genes were isolated in this study. However, another explanation for the two bands in extracellular extracts from native Janthinobacterium sp. 4239 cells may be that the strain produces two enzyme variants from the isolated cho4239-1 gene by using two different translation initiation positions and/or by cleavage at two different positions in the polypeptide chain. Apparently, the presence of chitosan substrate in the zymographic gel influences the migration position of the recombinant chitosanase product. The 27.5 kDa chitosan hydrolytic product from the native Janthinobacterium sp. 4239 may also not be size estimated entirely correctly in the zymogram. If this second chitosan hydrolyzing protein is a result of translational initiation at the second putative start position the expected molecular size is expected to be 28.1 kDa. However, we can not from our data conclude if Janthinobacterium sp. 4239 harbours one or two chitosanase gene(s).
Expression of the Janthinobacterium chitosanase in E. coli resulted in large amounts of recombinant chitosanase in the periplasm (BMS172). Also, a large amount of recombinant protein accumulated in the cytoplasm, suggesting that the efficiency of the expression system could be further improved by introducing elements that promote secretion. SDS-PAGE showed that the monomeric molecular weight of the chitosanase secreted by the BMS172 construct was 33 kDa, which is similarly to the larger of the two products secreted by the native Janthinobacterium sp. strain 4239 (Fig. 2, lane 2).
In agreement with the affiliation to glycosyl hydrolase family 46, based on protein homology, the ability of the chitosanase to convert chitosan hexamers into dimers and trimers further emphasizes the relation with endo-chitosanases. However, hexamer substrate conversion by crude extracellular protein from Janthinobacterium sp. 4239 resulted in monomeric glucosamine accumulation, suggesting that the native bacterium also produces exo-beta-D-glucosaminidase activity in addition to endo-hydrolytic chitosanase activity.
The chitosanase displayed 64% amino acid sequence identity with the well-characterized chitosanase from Streptomyces sp. N174. Alignment of the Janthinobacterium sp. 4239 chitosanase with that of Streptomyces sp. N174 revealed the presence of a putative catalytic residue at Glu22 (Streptomyces numbering). However, an equivalent of Asp40, which is also believed to be involved in catalysis in most - if not all - chitosanases from family GH-46, was not found. However, it has been shown  that an Asp to Gly mutation in position 40 in Streptomyces sp. N174 chitosanase did not affect the stereochemical mechanism of catalysis or the mode of interaction with the substrate. In stead, other accessory active site residues, Glu36 and Thr45, were shown to be involved in catalysis. Examination of the Janthinobacterium sp. 4239 chitosanase sequence (Fig. 1) shows the presence of a glutamine residue similar to the Glu36 and a threonine one residue from the Thr45 residue in the Streptomyces sp. N174 chitosanase. Thus, it may be possible that the Janthinobacterium sp. 4239 chitosanase uses the Glu36 residue as a catalytic residue.
This study provides a chitosanase affiliated to glycosyl hydrolase family 46 with specificity towards chitosan substrate and with activity at conditions favourable for transformation and transfection experiments. The ease, at which the chitosanase can be produced in E. coli and accumulated in the periplasm, provides a product with few impurities suitable for many experimental procedures. The application value of this enzyme can now be tested in protocols relying on efficient hydrolysis at low to moderate temperatures.
Chitosan samples with peak molecular weights of 500,000, 700,000 and 1,000,000 g/mol, respectively, and all with a degree of deacetylation of more than 80% were obtained from Cognis Deutschland GmbH&Co., KG (Düsseldorf, Germany). The chitosan (more than 80% deacetylated) used for preparing screening plates was obtained from Carbomer (Westborough, MA, USA). A specified preparation of water-soluble chitosan (WSC) with peak molecular weight of 2,500,000 g/mol and a degree of deacetylation of 55% was obtained from Primex ehf. (Reykjavik, Iceland). Carboxymethylcellulose and Avicel were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich. Crab flakes for colloidal chitin preparation were obtained from Carbomer (Westborough, MA, USA). The chitosan-oligosaccharides were obtained from Seikagaku Corporation (Japan). Restriction enzymes were from New England Biolabs and Fermentas.
Isolation and characterization of chitosanase-producing strain
Samples of microorganisms were collected at various locations along the West-coast of Greenland in 2000. Soil, sediment and water samples were plated on M9 medium supplemented with different carbohydrates. Strain 4239 was isolated from a fresh water lake close to Kangerlussuaq. The screening medium was prepared from stocks. A chitosan stock for one liter of medium was obtained by autoclaving 1.8 g of insoluble chitosan in 200 ml of demineralized water. Once room temperature was reached, the chitosan was brought in solution by adding 18 ml of sterile 1 M HCl. The chitosan was dissolved during stirring for two hours and then the entire stock was poured into 700 ml of autoclaved warm, sterile medium at a slow rate during vigorous stirring in order to maintain small colloidal particles. To prepare 700 ml of medium, 9 g of KH2PO4, 6 g of K2HPO4, 8 g of tryptone (Difco), 4 g of yeast extract (Difco) and 15 g of agar was mixed. The medium was further supplemented with 2 ml of Vogels Trace Elements (5 g of citric acid·H2O, 5 g of ZnSO4·7H2O, 1 g of Fe(NH4)2(SO4)2·6H2O, 0.25 g of CuSO4·5H2O, 0.05 g of MnSO4·H2O, 0.05 g of H3BO4 and 0.05 g of Na2MoO4·2H2O per 100 ml, sterilized by filtration). Finally, 2 ml of a sterile solution of MgSO4·6H2O (203 g/l) was added. Before use, the final volume was adjusted to 1 liter with sterile water. The isolated Janthinobacterium sp. strain 4239 was propagated for four days at 20°C in baffled, conical culture flasks containing the complete chitosan growth medium without agar and aerated by shaking. Supernatants were concentrated on spin filters (Amicon, 10 kDa cut-off) and analyzed for protein content and activity. Material for DNA isolation was obtained by incubation of cells for two days in a medium, in which the chitosan was substituted by 2.5 ml of 20% glucose per liter. Screening of E. coli transformants expressing chitosanase was carried out on LB agar plates supplemented with 1.8 g/l of chitosan prepared as described above.
Bacteria, plasmids and oligonucleotide primers
Reference or origin
Janthinobacterium sp. 4239
Gram negative, chitosanolytic, no chitinolytic activity detected.
F' mcr A Δ(mrr-hsd RMS-mcr BC) Φ80lac ZΔM15 Δlac X74 deo R rec A1 end A1 ara D139 Δ(ara, leu)7697 gal U gal K λ- rps L (Streptomycin R) nup G
DH10B:pMGJ1042. Reference strain.
DH10B:pMGJ1061. Chromosomal library clone expressing Cho4239-1.
DH10B:pBMS172. Construction expressing Cho4239-1 fused with the OmpA signal peptide.
lac UV5 promoter, Ampr, ColEI origin, 2.69 kb.
pMF1::OmpA-Sph I fragment. tetp/o promoter, Cmr, pro AB complementation and ColEI replication origin.
pUC18::4 kb chromosomal fragment encoding Cho4239-1.
pMGJ1042::815 bp PCR fragment digested with Sph I/Bam HI and fused with OmpA signal peptide.
Construction of pBMS172
Construction of pBMS172
16S RNA sequence
16S RNA sequence
Molecular cloning of chitosanase gene
Isolation of chromosomal DNA from Janthinobacterium sp. 4239 was carried out from a 100 ml cell culture which was harvested at OD600 = 3. The cells were harvested by centrifugation, resuspended in 10 ml of TE buffer (10 mM Tris·HCl, pH 7.5, 1 mM EDTA) and frozen at -20°C. The cells were thawed and incubated with 1% (w/v) SDS, 2 mg of proteinase K (Roche) and 0.1 mg of RNaseA. After incubation at room temperature for 30 min, 1.8 ml of 5 M NaCl was added. Phase separation was enhanced by the addition of 1.5 ml of 10% (w/v) hexadecyl-trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) dissolved in 0.7 M NaCl. The subsequent extraction steps were conducted essentially as described by Marmur . Chromosomal DNA was isolated after two rounds of phenol/chloroform/isoamyl alcohol extractions and two chloroform/isoamyl alcohol extractions, followed by addition of one volume of 2-propanol for precipitation. Finally, the DNA was spooled onto a sterile inoculation needle and washed several times in 70% (v/v) ethanol. The yield of purified DNA obtained from a 100 ml cell culture was estimated to 200 μg. The DNA was dissolved in TE-buffer and stored at 5°C.
A DNA library was constructed by partial digestion of 24 μg of chromosomal DNA using 0.8 units of the restriction enzyme Bsp 1431 (an isoscizomer of Sau 3A). After 15 min the partially digested DNA was heat treated at 65°C for 10 min. DNA fragments above 3 kb in size were purified by agarose gel electrophoresis. The fragments were ligated into plasmid pUC18 digested with the restriction enzyme Bam HI, and the ligation mixture was transformed into electrocompetent E. coli strain DH10B cells (Gibco BRL). A total of 40,000 transformants were plated onto LB plates supplemented with 1.8 g of chitosan per liter. E. coli colonies expressing chitosanase were identified by the appearance of clearing zones around the colonies.
Nucleotide sequence analysis
One of the E. coli isolates contained a pUC18 plasmid with a 4 kb insert, plasmid pMGJ1061. DNA sequencing of the insert in pMGJ1061 was carried out using custom ordered primers from DNA Technology (Aarhus, Denmark). Reactions were analyzed with an ALF Express sequencer (Pharmacia). Inserts were sequenced on both strands using plasmid specific primers and primer walking. Basic DNA analysis was carried out in DNA Star (Lasergene) and database searches for homologous sequences were carried out using the BLAST program . Multiple alignment of amino acid sequences was performed with the ClustalX program . A putative N-terminal signal peptide was identified by SignalP version 3.0 and LipoP server facilities . The DNA sequence of Janthinobacterium sp. 4239 chitosanase, Cho4239-1, was deposited in GenBank [GenBank:GQ487533].
Subcloning and expression in E. coli
Heterologous expression of Janthinobacterium sp. 4239 chitosanase in E. coli was carried out using vector pMGJ1042, a derivative of plasmid pMF1 [34, 35]. Secretion from this plasmid has been improved by introduction of the native OmpA signal peptide cleavage site as described previously . The chitosanase gene from Janthinobacterium sp. 4239 was isolated by PCR with primers specific for the cho4239-1 gene (Table 3). The DNA fragment was restricted with Sph I and Bam HI and inserted into pMGJ1042 also digested with these enzymes. In this plasmid, pBMS172, the putative catalytic part of the chitosanase gene was fused to the OmpA. The insert of plasmid pBMS172 was sequenced, and growth experiments on chitosan-containing agar plates with chloramphenicol (30 μg/ml) and tetracycline (10 ng/ml) confirmed the identity of the plasmid (Table 3).
Recombinant chitosanase was produced from 50 ml cultures of E. coli cells harbouring plasmid pBMS172. The cells were grown in enforced medium (16 g bactotryptone (Difco), 16 g yeast extract (Difco), 5 g NaCl, 2.5 g K2HPO4 per liter) and when the OD600 reached 2, the cultures were induced with 250 μg/ml of anhydro-tetracycline for 5-5.5 h.
Chitosanase activity was determined as the rate at which reducing molecules were generated. Reducing ends were quantitated by reaction with potassium ferricyanide stain  and converted to molecules by reference to a standard curve of reduced stain intensity versus different amounts of GlcN. The buffer systems outlined by Keith and Morrison  were used for testing activity at different pH values. The highly deacetylated chitosan substrates were dissolved in 25 mM HCl before adjusting the assay pH. In standard assay conditions substrate chitosan with a peak molecular weight of 1,000 kDa and 80% deacetylation was dissolved in HCl and equilibrated to pH 5.5 with 150 mM NH4Ac-buffer. One unit of chitosanase was defined as the amount of enzyme that liberates 1 μmol of d-glucosamine per min under the conditions described above. The glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity was assayed in extracts from an equal number of cells. In this assay the formation of NADH during glucose-6-phophate conversion was determined at 340 nm.
Extraction and purification of Janthinobacterium chitosanase
Bacterial cell pellets were obtained by centrifugation and then mixed with an equal volume of extraction buffer (2.5 mM EDTA and 20 mM Tris·HCl, pH 6.5). Three successive cycles of freezing and thawing were conducted for the specific extraction of periplasmatic proteins . After precipitation of the remaining cell content, the cytoplasm was extracted in the same buffer by FastPrep (Bio101) treatment including a 1:1 volume ratio of 102 nm glass beads (Sigma) at speed 5.5 for three times 20 sec. For long-term storage, the extracts were preserved with 50% (v/v) glycerol and kept at -20°C. For storage less than a week, the extract were preserved by addition of 1.5 mM NaN3 and kept in the refrigerator. Chitosanase was purified from periplasmic extract by gel filtration on a Superdex 75 HR 10/30 column (GE Healthcare). The column was equilibrated and eluted with 50 mM potassium phosphate, 150 mM NaCl, pH 6.5. Chitosanase containing fractions were pooled and analyzed by SDS-PAGE (Invitrogen). The quantity of the purified chitosanase protein was estimated relative to the intensity of molecular weight markers (Mark12, Invitrogen).
Characterization of chitosanase
Zymographic polyacrylamide gels were cast with 30% ProtoGel 37.5:1 and ProtoGel buffers from National Diagnostics. In the separation gel 0.025% (w/v) WSC chitosan was included. Prior to loading the gels, the enzyme samples were denatured by heat treatment for 3 min at 100°C. The sample buffer was prepared as a two-fold stock solution by mixing 15 ml of 50% (w/v) sucrose, 10 ml of 10% (w/v) SDS and 5 ml of 1 M Tris·HCl, pH 6.8. After electrophoresis, gels were renatured by overnight incubation in phosphate buffer, pH 6.5, stained with 0.1% Fluorescent Brightner 28 (Sigma) in 0.5 M Tris·HCl, pH 9 for 5 min, and destained in several changes of demineralized water for a period of 3-4 h. Zymographic gel section with marker proteins and acrylamide gels without chitosan substrate were stained with Coomassie Brilliant Blue. Results were documented by UV (312 nm) exposure and photography. TLC experiments were conducted on Silica Gel 60 plates (Merck) with oligosaccharides and glucosamine as references. The mobile phase was prepared by mixing 100 ml of 1-propanol and 50 ml of 25% (v/v) ammonia (Merck). The separation was conducted over two runs each taking about 6 h. After drying, the plates were sprayed with 5% (v/v) HCl in ethanol and heated for 10 min in an oven at 170°C.
We acknowledge the excellent technical work of Bente Smith Thorup and Britt Grønvold Olsen throughout this study. Referring to the Convention on Biological Diversity, we thank the Greenland Home Rule for permission to sample biological material in Greenland.
- Fenton DM, Eveleigh DE: Purification and mode of action of a chitosanase from Penicillium islandicum. J Gen Microbiol. 1981, 126: 151-165.Google Scholar
- Pochanavanich P, Suntornsuk W: Fungal chitosan production and its characterization. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2002, 35: 17-21. 10.1046/j.1472-765X.2002.01118.x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Davis B, Eveleigh DE: Chitosanases: occurrence, production and immobilization. Chitin, Chitosan and Related Enzymes. Edited by: Zikakis JP. 1984, New York: Academic Press, 161-179.Google Scholar
- Khor E: The relevance of chitin. Chitin: Fulfilling a biomaterials promise. Edited by: Khor E. 2001, Oxford, United Kingdom: Elsevier Science Ltd, 1-8. FirstView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hirano S, Nagao N: Effects of chitosan, pectic acid, lysozyme and chitinase on the growth of several phytopathogens. Agric Biol Chem. 1989, 53: 3065-3066.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kendra DF, Hadwiger LA: Characterization of the smallest chitosan oligomer that is maximally antifungal to Fusarium solani and elicits pisatin formation in Pisum sativum. Exp Mycol. 1984, 8: 276-281. 10.1016/0147-5975(84)90013-6.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Suzuki K, Mikami T, Okawa Y, Tokoro A, Suzuki S, Suzuki M: Antitumor effect of hexa-N-Acetylchitogexaose and chitohexose. Carbohydr Res. 1986, 151: 403-408. 10.1016/S0008-6215(00)90359-8.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Suzuki S: Studies on biological effects of water soluble lower homologous oligosaccharides of chitin and chitosan. Fragrance J. 1996, 15: 61-68.Google Scholar
- Tokoro A, Kobayashi M, Tatekawa N, Suzuki S, Suzuki M: Protective effects of N-acetylchitohexaose of Listeria monocytogenes infection in mice. Microbiol Immunol. 1989, 33: 357-367.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Tsukada K, Matsumoto T, Aizawa K, Tokoro A, Naruse R, Suzuki S, Suzuki M: Antimetastatic and growth-inhibitory effects of N-acetylchitohexaose in mice bearing Lewis lung carcinoma. Jpn J Cancer Res. 1990, 81: 259-265.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- The glycoside hydrolase family server; Carbohydrate Active enzymes, CAZy. [http://www.cazy.org/fam/acc_GH.html]
- Fukamizo T, Brzezinski R: Chitosanase from Streptomyces sp. strain N174: a comparative review of its structure and function. Biochem Cell Biol, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire. 1997, 75: 687-696. 10.1139/bcb-75-6-687.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Honda Y, Fukamizo T, Okajima T, Goto S, Boucher I, Brzezinski R: Thermal unfolding of chitosanase from Streptomyces sp. N174: role of tryptophan residues in the protein structure stabilization. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1999, 1429: 365-376.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Marcotte EM, Monzingo AF, Ernst SR, Brzezinski R, Robertas JD: X-ray structure of an anti-fungal chitosanase from Streptomyces N174. Nature Structural Biology. 1996, 3: 155-162. 10.1038/nsb0296-155.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Saito J-I, Kita A, Higuchi Y, Nagata Y, Ando A, Miki K: Crystal structure of chitosanase from Bacillus circulans MH-K1 at, 1.6-Å resolution and its substrate recognition mechanism. J Biol Chem. 1999, 274: 30818-30825. 10.1074/jbc.274.43.30818.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Shimosaka M, Nogawa M, Wang XY, Kumehara M, Okazaki M: Production of two chitosanases from a chitosan-assimilating bacterium, Acinetobacter sp. strain CHB101. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1995, 61: 438-442.Google Scholar
- Okajima S, Ando A, Shinoyama H, Fujii T: Purification and characterization of an extracellular chitosanase produced by Amycolatopsis sp. CsO-2. J Ferment Bioeng. 1994, 77: 617-620. 10.1016/0922-338X(94)90142-2.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wang SL, Peng JH, Liang TW, Liu KC: Purification and characterization of a chitosanase from Serratia marcescens TKU011. Carbohydr Res. 2008, 343: 1316-1323. 10.1016/j.carres.2008.03.030.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ando A, Saito A, Arai S, Usuda S, Furuno M, Kaneko N, Shida O, Nagata Y: Molecular characterization of a novel family-46 chitosanase from Pseudomonas sp. A-01. Biosci Biotech Bioch. 2008, 72: 2074-2081. 10.1271/bbb.80175.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Masson JY, Boucher I, Neugebauer WA, Ramotar D, Brzezinski R: A new chitosanase gene from a Nocardioides sp. is a third member of glycosyl hydrolase family 46. Microbiology. 1995, 141: 2629-2635. 10.1099/13500872-141-10-2629.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhang J, Sun Y: Molecular cloning, expression and characterization of a chitosanase from Microbacterium sp. Biotechnol Lett. 2007, 29: 1221-1225. 10.1007/s10529-007-9373-y.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wang J, Zhou W, Yuan H, Wang Y: Characterization of a novel fungal chitosanase Csn2 from Gongronella sp. JG. Carbohydr Res. 2008, 343: 2583-2588. 10.1016/j.carres.2008.08.004.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhang XY, Dai AL, Zhang XK, Kuroiwa K, Kodaira R, Shimosaka M, Okazaki M: Purification and characterization of chitosanase and exo-ß-D-glucosaminidase from a koji mold, Aspergillus oryzae IAM 2660. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2000, 64: 1896-1902. 10.1271/bbb.64.1896.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Shimosaka M, Kumehara M, Zhang X-Y, Nogawa M, Okazaki M: Cloning and characterization of a chitosanase gene from the plant pathogenic fungus, Fusarium solani. J Ferment Bioeng. 1996, 82: 426-431. 10.1016/S0922-338X(97)86977-2.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Prabaharan M, Mano JF: Chitosan-based particles as controlled drug delivery systems. Drug Deliv. 2005, 12: 41-57. 10.1080/10717540590889781.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zuo A, Sun P, Liang D, Liu W, Zhao R, Guo G, Cheng N, Zhang J, Yao K: Improved transfection efficiency of CS/DNA complex by co-transfected chitosanase gene. Int J Pharm. 2008, 352: 302-308. 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2007.10.042.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Gleave AP, Taylor RK, Morris BA, Greenwood DR: Cloning and sequencing of a gene encoding the 69-kDa extracellular chitinase of Janthinobacterium lividum. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1995, 131: 279-288. 10.1111/j.1574-6968.1995.tb07788.x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Xiao X, Yin X, Lin J, Sun L, You Z, Wang P, Wang F: Chitinase genes in lake sediments of Ardley Island, Antarctica. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2005, 71: 7904-7909. 10.1128/AEM.71.12.7904-7909.2005.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lacombe-Harvey M-E, Fukamizo T, Gagnon J, Ghinet MG, Dennhart N, Letzel T, Brzezinski R: Accessory active site residues of Streptomyces sp. N174 chitosanase. FEBS Journal. 2009, 276: 857-869. 10.1111/j.1742-4658.2008.06830.x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Marmur J: A procedure for the isolation of deoxyribonucleic acid from microorganisms. J Mol Biol. 1961, 3: 208-218. 10.1016/S0022-2836(61)80047-8.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Altschul SF, Madden TL, Schaffer AA, Zhang J, Zhang Z: Gapped BLAST and PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs. Nucleic Acids Res. 1997, 25: 3389-3402. 10.1093/nar/25.17.3389.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Thompson JD, Gibson TJ, Plewniak F, Jeanmougin F, Higgins DG: The CLUSTAL_X windows interface: flexible strategies for multiple sequence alignment aided by quality analysis tools. Nucleic Acids Res. 1997, 25: 4876-4882. 10.1093/nar/25.24.4876.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bendtsen JD, Nielsen H, von Heijne G, Brunak S: Improved Prediction of Signal Peptides: SignalP 3.0. J Mol Biol. 2004, 340: 783-795. 10.1016/j.jmb.2004.05.028.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Fiedler M, Skerra A: proBA complementation of an auxotrophic E. coli strain improves plasmid stability and expression yield during fermenter production of a recombinant antibody fragment. Gene. 2001, 274: 111-118. 10.1016/S0378-1119(01)00629-1.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Skerra A: Use of the tetracycline promoter for the tightly regulated production of a murine antibody fragment in Escherichia coli. Gene. 1994, 151: 131-135. 10.1016/0378-1119(94)90643-2.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Rasmussen MA, Madsen SM, Stougaard P, Johnsen MG: Flavobacterium sp. strain 4221 and Pedobacter sp. strain 4236 beta-1,3-glucanases that are active at low temperatures. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008, 22: 7070-7072. 10.1128/AEM.00681-08.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Imoto T, Yagishita K: A simple activity measurement of lysozyme. Agric Biol Chem. 1971, 35: 1154-1156.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Keith KJ, Morrison JF: Buffers of constant ionic strength for studying pH-dependent processes. Methods in enzymology, vol 87. Edited by: Purich DL. 1982, London, Academic Press, 405-426.Google Scholar
- Souzu H: Studies on the damage to Escherichia coli cell membrane caused by different rates of freeze-thawing. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1980, 603: 13-26. 10.1016/0005-2736(80)90387-9.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yanisch-Perron C, Vieira J, Messing J: Improved M13 phage cloning vectors and host strains: nucleotide sequences of the M13mp18 and pUC19 vectors. Gene. 1985, 33: 103-119. 10.1016/0378-1119(85)90120-9.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.