- Open Access
Synthesis of an antiviral drug precursor from chitin using a saprophyte as a whole-cell catalyst
- Matthias G Steiger†1, 4,
- Astrid R Mach-Aigner†1,
- Rita Gorsche1,
- Erwin E Rosenberg2,
- Marko D Mihovilovic3 and
- Robert L Mach1Email author
© Steiger et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2011
- Received: 26 July 2011
- Accepted: 5 December 2011
- Published: 5 December 2011
Recent incidents, such as the SARS and influenza epidemics, have highlighted the need for readily available antiviral drugs. One important precursor currently used for the production of Relenza, an antiviral product from GlaxoSmithKline, is N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuNAc). This substance has a considerably high market price despite efforts to develop cost-reducing (biotechnological) production processes. Hypocrea jecorina (Trichoderma reesei) is a saprophyte noted for its abundant secretion of hydrolytic enzymes and its potential to degrade chitin to its monomer N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc). Chitin is considered the second most abundant biomass available on earth and therefore an attractive raw material.
In this study, we introduced two enzymes from bacterial origin into Hypocrea, which convert GlcNAc into NeuNAc via N-acetylmannosamine. This enabled the fungus to produce NeuNAc from the cheap starting material chitin in liquid culture. Furthermore, we expressed the two recombinant enzymes as GST-fusion proteins and developed an enzyme assay for monitoring their enzymatic functionality. Finally, we demonstrated that Hypocrea does not metabolize NeuNAc and that no NeuNAc-uptake by the fungus occurs, which are important prerequisites for a potential production strategy.
This study is a proof of concept for the possibility to engineer in a filamentous fungus a bacterial enzyme cascade, which is fully functional. Furthermore, it provides the basis for the development of a process for NeuNAc production as well as a general prospective design for production processes that use saprophytes as whole-cell catalysts.
- Sialic Acid
- Colloidal Chitin
NeuNAc is the most prevalent exponent of sialic acids . In mammals, sialic acids are usually found as terminal residues of glycol conjugates on the outermost cell surface. As a result of their location and their negative carboxylate functionality, sialic acids play important roles in mediating cellular recognition and adhesion processes  and in the infection cycles of severe viral diseases, such as influenza viruses A and B . In these cases, de novo- synthesized viral particles attach to their respective sialic acids at the cell surface. Neuraminidase (sialidase) activity is needed for the propagation of the virus in the host. Consequently, sialic acid derivatives are successfully applied in the therapy of such virus-related diseases. One well-known product that functions as a neuraminidase inhibitor is Relenza. Its active pharmaceutical ingredient is Zanamivir, which is a direct derivative of the NeuNAc precursor .
Traditionally, NeuNAc is prepared through extraction from natural sources, such as bird nests, milk, or eggs , through the hydrolysis of colominic acid (a homopolymer of NeuNAc) in a culture broth of Escherichia coli K1 , or through chemical synthesis . Methods for NeuNAc production have included a chemo-enzymatic process [8, 9], a two-enzyme reaction process [10, 11], a biotransformation process using E. coli, and an E. coli whole-cell system . However, the requirement for ATP or an excess of pyruvate and the subsequent expensive downstream processing has kept the costs of NeuNAc production considerably high (current market price is $100/g).
Chitin is considered the second most abundant biomass available on earth . The estimated annual biosynthesis of chitin is more than 1011 tons in marine waters alone . Unlike cellulose, the other dominant biopolymer, chitin can serve as a source for both carbon and nitrogen (C:N = 8:1) . This property suggests that chitin is an optimal resource for the production of NeuNAc (C:N = 11:1) because no additional nitrogen would need to be applied as it would be if glucose or cellulose were used as raw material. Chitin is found in the exoskeletons of arthropods, such as crustaceans (including crab, lobster, and shrimp) and insects (including ants and beetles), the cell walls of fungi, the radula of mollusks, and the beaks of cephalopods (including squid and octopi). This polymer is composed of β-(1,4)-linked units of the amino sugar N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) that is currently produced using hydrolysis of deproteinized and demineralized crustacean shells . Chitinolytic enzymes from fungi of the genus Hypocrea have been extensively studied for decades . More recently, the chitinolytic enzyme system of H. jecorina has been studied using genome-wide analysis [19, 20]. Unlike their bacterial counterparts (e.g., Serratia marcescens), Hypocrea chitinolytic preparations have a high ratio of exochitinase to endochitinase activity and almost exclusively release monomeric GlcNAc from chitin , which is another advantageous aspect of chitin compared to cellulose. Nevertheless, this raw material has not been adequately used. Therefore, the basic premise of this study was to exploit the potential of a saprophytic fungus to degrade the cheap biowaste chitin to its monomer GlcNAc and to further metabolize this product to NeuNAc.
Engineering a NeuNAc synthesis pathway into Hypocrea
Lee and coworkers found that whole-cell extracts of several photobacteria could convert GlcNAc to ManNAc . Among them, Anabaena sp. CH1 exhibited the highest GlcNAc 2-epimerase activity; consequently, they cloned and characterized a gene encoding GlcNAc 2-epimerase from Anabaena sp. CH1 (E.C. 22.214.171.124) , which was used in the present study as a Hypocrea codon-optimized gene. For the second step (the condensation of ManNAc to NeuNAc), the currently used enzyme-catalyzed processes use a lyase, which requires an excess of pyruvate. Use of this incurs high downstream processing costs. Therefore, we used the NeuNAc synthase (EC 126.96.36.199) from Campylobacter jejuni in the Hyprocrea process. This enzymatic step entails the use of PEP instead of pyruvate, which in the intended in vivo process is supplied by the fungus, thereby leading to an irreversible and more efficient reaction towards NeuNAc . Moreover, the need for an excess of pyruvate becomes obsolete, and the resulting downstream process is significantly simplified. Similar to the GlcNAc 2-epimerase, the coding sequence for the NeuNAc synthase was codon-optimized for the usage in Hypocrea. The synthetic pathway is presented in Figure 1. The complete nucleotide sequences for both genes encoding the recombinant enzymes, tbage and tneub, are shown in additional file 1.
Metabolization or uptake of NeuNAc can not be observed in Hypocrea
Characterization of the recombinant H. jecorina strain
Recombinant Hypocrea strains were generated using protoplast transformation of H. jecorina QM9414. In the derived strains, the two Hypocrea codon-optimized genes (without GST-tag) were placed under the control of either the H. jecorina pyruvate kinase (pki) promoter, which is a strong constitutive promoter, or the H. jecorina xylanase 1 (xyn1) promoter, which is a strict shut-off system if an inducer (e.g. D-xylose) is missing. Such a system was used to avoid interference of the introduced recombinant pathway with cell wall biosynthesis and consequently, biomass formation. However, when comparing both promoter systems the strong pki promoter did not lead to decreased growth, diminished cell integrity or other adverse effects (data not shown). Therefore, we used strains in which both genes were under the control of the pki promoter for further studies as we observed a remarkably higher NeuNAc formation.
Transcriptional analysis of the recombinant H. jecorina strains was done by RT-qPCR to compare expression of both inserted genes using sar1 (SAR/ARF-type small GTPase) as a stable reference gene . Furthermore, the copy numbers of both genes was measured by qPCR of genomic DNA using pki as a reference, which in the native H. jecorina genome is present as a single copy gene. Based on these analyses a strain (termed PEC/PSC1) was chosen for further investigations because it showed the highest equal expression of both inserted genes. This was confirmed by the finding that this strain bears two copies of each recombinant gene in the genome. These data were also supported using Southern blot analysis (data not shown).
GlcNAc 2-epimerase and NeuNAc synthase are fully functional as GST-fusion proteins
Both recombinant enzymes were heterologously expressed as glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins in E. coli; the affinity chromatography purified proteins were used to confirm that their enzymatic capability was not altered by the codon usage adaptation and to provide a positive control for the enzymatic assays later on.
NeuNAc synthesis in vitro by recombinant H. jecorina strains
According to the GST-fusion proteins, cell-free extracts of the recombinant H. jecorina strain PEC/PSC1 were applied in the enzymatic assay. The formation of ManNAc (Figure 3a2) and NeuNAc could be detected (Figure 3b2). This demonstrates that both enzymes are also fully functionally expressed in the recombinant H. jecorina strain PEC/PSC1. Neither ManNAc nor NeuNAc was detected using cell-free extracts from the parental strain in the assay (Figure 3a3 and 3b3), indicating that these pathways are normally not active in Hypocrea.
To investigate the stability of NeuNAc in cell-free extracts of the recombinant strain, according cell-free extracts obtained from the cultivation in a bioreactor on chitin (vide infra) were spiked with NeuNAc and incubated for 24 h. As a control, a heat-inactivated cell-free extract was similarly treated. Using HPLC analysis after derivatization with DMB, similar amounts of NeuNAc were detected in both extract preparations (Figure 3c), suggesting that components of the cell-free extract do not actively degrade NeuNAc. In addition, a similar amount of NeuNAc was measured in a NeuNAc-spiked cell-free extract of the recombinant strain that was not incubated, assuming that the 24-h incubation period at 30°C did not decrease the NeuNAc levels. As a final control, a cell-free extract without NeuNAc was also analyzed after a 24-h incubation period and, as expected, showed a lower amount of NeuNAc, which could only have resulted from its formation during the cultivation on chitin. In summary, we did not observe degradation of NeuNAc by H. jecorina. These data suggest that NeuNAc is not metabolized by the recombinant Hypocrea strain.
NeuNAc synthesis in vivo by the recombinant H. jecorina strain
Taken together, we successfully engineered Hypocrea in a way that this fungus now produces NeuNAc from the biopolymer chitin by employing its natural saprophytic activity in combination with the introduction of a bacterial enzyme cascade. Because human society will face severe bottlenecks in the supply of energy and in obtaining certain raw materials in the upcoming years, we hope that this study will highlight the potential advantages of biopolymers, such as chitin, and stimulate their efficient usage. Furthermore, we anticipate that such strategies will support efforts to create sustainable production processes.
Strains and cultivation conditions
The parental strain H. jecorina (T. reesei) QM9414 (ATCC 26921) was maintained on malt extract (MEX) agar.
Mycelia for the enzymatic assay were cultivated in 3% (w/v) MEX medium using 108 conidia/L at 30°C.
Cultivation of H. jecorina on colloidal chitin was performed in a bench top bioreactor (Bioengineering, Wald, Switzerland) as previously described . Briefly, 500 mL Mandels-Andreotti (MA)  medium containing 1% (w/v) colloidal chitin , 0.5% GlcNAc, and 0.1% (w/v) bacto peptone (Difco, Detroit, US) was inoculated with 108 conidia/L. Some drops glanapon (Becker, Wien, Austria) were added to the medium to avoid excessive foam formation. Cultivation was performed at 30°C temperature, pH 5, 0.3 vvm aeration rate, and 500 rpm agitation rate for 96 h. Each sample drawing was followed by a microscopic analysis for infection control. Culture supernatant and mycelia were separated by filtration through GF/F glass microfiber filters (Whatman, Brentford, UK). All strains (parental, recombinant) showed similar growth on rich media as well as MA medium.
The synthetic gene tbage (for sequence see additional file 1) is based on the protein sequence of Anabaena sp. CH1 GlcNAc-2-epimerase (GenBank: ABG57042) and was reverse translated into a nucleotide sequence using the GeneOptimizer® software (Geneart, Regensburg, Germany). The codon usage was optimized for H. jecorina (http://www.kazusa.or.jp/codon). The synthetic gene tneub (for sequence see additional file 1) was similarly obtained based on the protein sequence from Campylobacter jejuni NCTC11168 NeuNAc synthase (http://old.genedb.org/genedb/cjejuni/index.jsp, Cj1141).
The synthetic genes tbage and tneub were excised from the production plasmid using Xba I/Nsi I digestion and inserted into pRLMex30  to generate the plasmids pMS-PEC and pMS-PSC.
Oligonucleotides used during this study
qPCR pki cDNA
qPCR pki DNA
The protoplast transformation of H. jecorina was performed as described previously . The plasmid pHylox2 (2 μg) , which confers hygromycin B resistance , and 4 μg of each plasmid pMS-PEC and pMS-PSC were co-transformed into the fungal genome.
Fungal genomic DNA was isolated as described previously . Southern hybridization and detection were performed using the DIG High Prime DNA Labeling and Detection Starter Kit II following the manufacturer's instructions (Roche, Basel, Switzerland).
Glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins
GST fusion proteins of GlcNAc-2-epimerase and NeuNAc synthase were generated using plasmids pGEX-epi and pGEX-syn in E. coli BL21 (DE3). Purification of the proteins was performed using GSTrap™FF (GE Healthcare) according to standard procedures.
Harvested mycelia were ground into fine powder and resuspended in 0.1 M Bicine buffer (pH 8) containing protease inhibitors (2 μM leupeptin, 1 μM pepstatin A, and 10 μM PMSF) (0.3 g mycelia/mL). The suspension was sonicated using a Sonifier® 250 Cell Disruptor (Branson, Danbury, US) (power 40%, duty cycle 50%, power 20 sec, 40 sec pause, 10 cycles). Insoluble compounds were separated using centrifugation (10 min, 13000 g, 4°C). Enzymatic analysis was performed according to a previously described modified protocol . The assay was performed in a total volume of 100 μL containing 10 mM GlcNAc, 10 mM PEP, 12.5 mM MnCl2, 100 mM Bicine buffer (pH 8) and 40 μL cell-free extract. Reactions were incubated for 60 min at 37°C, terminated at 85°C for 10 min and analyzed using HPLC. As a positive control, 5 μL of both GST fusion proteins were applied in place of the cell-free extracts.
The stability of NeuNAc in the cell-free extract was determined by adding NeuNAc (150 μM) and incubating for 24 h at 30°C. After derivatization with DMB , the NeuNAc quantity was measured using HPLC.
Detection of NeuNAc synthesis in vivo
Harvested H. jecorina mycelia were ground into fine powder and resuspended in water (0.3 g mycelia/mL). The suspension was sonicated using a Sonifier® 250 Cell Disruptor (Branson) (power 70%, duty cycle 50%, power for 1 min, 1 min pause, 3 cycles). Insoluble compounds were separated using centrifugation (10 min, 13000 g, 4°C), and the supernatant was analyzed using HPLC-MS/MS.
NeuNAc and GlcNAc uptake
H. jecorina mycelia were pre-grown on MA containing 1% glycerol, transferred to MA medium containing 1% glycerol or no carbon source, spiked with 30 μM NeuNAc or GlcNAc, respectively, and incubated for 8 h at 30°C. Autoclaved mycelia served as a negative control. After derivatization with DMB , the NeuNAc quantity was measured using HPLC.
HPLC and HPLC-MS/MS analysis
NeuNAc, ManNAc and GlcNAc formation was measured using LC-MS (IT-TOF-MS) (Shimadzu, Kyoto, Japan) with a Rezex™ RHM-Monosaccharide H+-column (8%, 300 × 7.8 mm) (Phenomenex, Torrance, USA). The mobile phase consisted of water with 0.1% (v/v) trifluoroacetic acid, the flow was 0.6 mL/min, the column temperature was 80°C, and the injected volume was 10 μL. MS detection was performed in ESI+ mode, covering a scan range of 60-600 amu. The retention times were determined using pure standard substances. The identity of NeuNAc was confirmed by both, chromatographic retention time and mass spectral signal, which are very well matched by authentic standards of NeuNAc. The better the mass accuracy obtained from exact mass determination by HR-MS, the lower is the number of possible isobaric candidates (e.g. ). In this case the mass accuracy is better than 2 ppm, leading to the number of candidates reduced to less than 10, with an even further reduction in the number of potential candidates because the isotopic pattern is also taken into account (what the software of the used IT-TOF-MS instrument does automatically).
DMB derivatives of NeuNAc were separated on a Kinetex RP C18 (Phenomenex) at 0.75 mL/min with a 40°C column temperature and a mobile phase of water:methanol:trifluoroacetic acid (74.25:25:0.75). A Shimadzu RF-20AXS fluorescence detector (excitation 373 nm, emission 448 nm) was used for detection.
This study was supported by a grant from the Austrian Science Fund FWF (P21287) and a grant from the Vienna University of Technology ("DemoTech", Innovative Project), which are gratefully acknowledged. We thank Michael Schön for assistance with analytical work.
- Schauer R, Kelm S, Reuter G, Roggentin P, Shaw L: Biochemistry and Role of Sialic Acids. Biology of the Sialic Acids. Edited by: Rosenberg A. 1995, 7-67. NY and London: Plenum Press,View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Varki A: Sialic acids as ligands in recognition phenomena. Faseb J. 1997, 11 (4): 248-255.Google Scholar
- Herrler G, Hausmann J, Klenk HD: Sialic acid as receptor determinant of ortho-and paramyxoviruses. Biology of the Sialic Acids. Edited by: Rosenberg A. 1995, 315-331. NY and London: Plenum Press,View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Tremblay JF: The other drug for avian flu. C&EN. 2006, 84 (15): 33-36.Google Scholar
- Koketsu M, Juneja LR, Kawanami H, Kim M, Yamamoto T: Preparation of N-acetylneuraminic acid from delipidated egg yolk. Glycoconj J. 1992, 9 (2): 70-74. 10.1007/BF00731701View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Maru I, Ohnishi J, Ohta Y, Tsukada Y: Why is sialic acid attracting interest now? Complete enzymatic synthesis of sialic acid with N-acylglucosamine 2-epimerase. J Biosci Bioeng. 2002, 93 (3): 258-265. 10.1263/jbb.93.258View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- de Ninno M: The synthesis and glycosidation of N-acetyl-D-neuraminic acid. Synthesis. 1991, 8: 583-593.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Blayer S, Woodley JM, Dawson MJ, Lilly MD: Alkaline biocatalysis for the direct synthesis of N-acetyl-D-neuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) from N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc). Biotechnol Bioeng. 1999, 66 (2): 131-136. 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0290(1999)66:2<131::AID-BIT6>3.0.CO;2-XView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mahmoudian M, Noble D, Drake CS, Middleton RF, Montgomery DS, Piercey JE, Ramlakhan D, Todd M, Dawson MJ: An efficient process for production of N-acetylneuraminic acid using N-acetylneuraminic acid aldolase. Enzyme Microb Technol. 1997, 20 (5): 393-400. 10.1016/S0141-0229(96)00180-9View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kragl U, Gygax D, Ghisalba O, Wandrey C: Enzymatic two step synthesis of N-acetylneuraminic acid in the enzyme membrane reactor. Angew Chem Int Ed Eng. 1991, 30: 827-828. 10.1002/anie.199108271. 10.1002/anie.199108271View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Maru I, Ohnishi J, Ohta Y, Tsukada Y: Simple and large-scale production of N-acetylneuraminic acid from N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and pyruvate using N-acyl-D-glucosamine 2-epimerase and N-acetylneuraminate lyase. Carbohydr Res. 1998, 306 (4): 575-578. 10.1016/S0008-6215(97)10106-9View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Tabata K, Koizumi S, Endo T, Ozaki A: Production of N-acetyl-D-neuraminic acid by coupling bacteria expressing N-acetyl-D-glucosamine 2-epimerase and N-acetyl-D-neuraminic acid synthetase. Enzyme Microb Techn. 2002, 30: 327-333. 10.1016/S0141-0229(01)00515-4. 10.1016/S0141-0229(01)00515-4View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lee YC, Chien HC, Hsu WH: Production of N-acetyl-D-neuraminic acid by recombinant whole cells expressing Anabaena sp. CH1 N-acetyl-D-glucosamine 2-epimerase and Escherichia coli N-acetyl-D-neuraminic acid lyase. J Biotechnol. 2007, 129 (3): 453-460. 10.1016/j.jbiotec.2007.01.027View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ballenweg S: Roempp Online. Thieme Chemistry, Stuttgart. 2005,Google Scholar
- Li X, Roseman S: The chitinolytic cascade in Vibrios is regulated by chitin oligosaccharides and a two-component chitin catabolic sensor/kinase. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2004, 101 (2): 627-631. 10.1073/pnas.0307645100View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Khoushab F, Yamabhai M: Chitin research revisited. Mar Drugs. 2010, 8 (7): 1988-2012. 10.3390/md8071988View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ferrer J, Paez G, Marmol Z, Ramones E, Garcia H, Forster C: Acid hydrolysis of shrimp-shell wastes and the production of single cell protein from the hydrolysate. Bioresour Technol. 1996, 57: 55-60. 10.1016/0960-8524(96)00057-0. 10.1016/0960-8524(96)00057-0View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lorito M: Chitinolytic enzymes and theire genes. Trichoderma & Gliocladium. Edited by: Harman GE, Kubicek CP. 1998, 2: 73-92. London, UK: Taylor & Francis,Google Scholar
- Seidl V, Huemer B, Seiboth B, Kubicek CP: A complete survey of Trichoderma chitinases reveals three distinct subgroups of family 18 chitinases. FEBS J. 2005, 272 (22): 5923-5939. 10.1111/j.1742-4658.2005.04994.xView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Martinez D, Berka RM, Henrissat B, Saloheimo M, Arvas M, Baker SE, Chapman J, Chertkov O, Coutinho PM, Cullen D, et al: Genome sequencing and analysis of the biomass-degrading fungus Trichoderma reesei (syn. Hypocrea jecorina). Nat Biotechnol. 2008, 26 (5): 553-560. 10.1038/nbt1403View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Watanabe T, Kimura K, Sumiya T, Nikaidou N, Suzuki K, Suzuki M, Taiyoji M, Ferrer S, Regue M: Genetic analysis of the chitinase system of Serratia marcescens 2170. J Bacteriol. 1997, 179 (22): 7111-7117.Google Scholar
- Donzelli BG, Ostroff G, Harman GE: Enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis of langostino shell chitin with mixtures of enzymes from bacterial and fungal sources. Carbohydr Res. 2003, 338 (18): 1823-1833. 10.1016/S0008-6215(03)00269-6View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sundaram AK, Pitts L, Muhammad K, Wu J, Betenbaugh M, Woodard RW, Vann WF: Characterization of N-acetylneuraminic acid synthase isoenzyme 1 from Campylobacter jejuni. Biochem J. 2004, 383 (Pt 1): 83-89.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Paccalet T, Bardor M, Rihouey C, Delmas F, Chevalier C, D'Aoust MA, Faye L, Vezina L, Gomord V, Lerouge P: Engineering of a sialic acid synthesis pathway in transgenic plants by expression of bacterial Neu5Ac-synthesizing enzymes. Plant Biotechnol J. 2007, 5 (1): 16-25. 10.1111/j.1467-7652.2006.00211.xView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Steiger MG, Mach RL, Mach-Aigner AR: An accurate normalization strategy for RT-qPCR in Hypocrea jecorina (Trichoderma reesei). J Biotechnol. 2010, 145 (1): 30-37. 10.1016/j.jbiotec.2009.10.012View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kuhls K, Lieckfeldt E, Samuels GJ, Kovacs W, Meyer W, Petrini O, Gams W, Borner T, Kubicek CP: Molecular evidence that the asexual industrial fungus Trichoderma reesei is a clonal derivative of the ascomycete Hypocrea jecorina. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996, 93 (15): 7755-7760. 10.1073/pnas.93.15.7755View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Stricker AR, Trefflinger P, Aro N, Penttilä M, Mach RL: Role of Ace2 (Activator of Cellulases 2) within the xyn2 transcriptosome of Hypocrea jecorina. Fungal Genet Biol. 2008, 45 (4): 436-445. 10.1016/j.fgb.2007.08.005View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mandels M: Applications of cellulases. Biochem Soc Trans. 1985, 13 (2): 414-416.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Roberts WK, Selitrennikoff CP: Plant and Bacterial Chitinases Differ in Antifungal Activity. J Gen Microbiol. 1988, 134: 169-176.Google Scholar
- Mach RL, Schindler M, Kubicek CP: Transformation of Trichoderma reesei based on hygromycin B resistance using homologous expression signals. Curr Genet. 1994, 25 (6): 567-570. 10.1007/BF00351679View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Gruber F, Visser J, Kubicek CP, de Graaff LH: The development of a heterologous transformation system for the cellulolytic fungus Trichoderma reesei based on a pyrG-negative mutant strain. Curr Genet. 1990, 18 (1): 71-76. 10.1007/BF00321118View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Steiger MG, Vitikainen M, Uskonen P, Brunner K, Adam G, Pakula T, Penttilä M, Saloheimo M, Mach RL, Mach-Aigner AR: Transformation system for Hypocrea jecorina (Trichoderma reesei) that favors homologous integration and employs reusable bidirectionally selectable markers. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011, 77 (1): 114-121. 10.1128/AEM.02100-10View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Vann WF, Tavarez JJ, Crowley J, Vimr E, Silver RP: Purification and characterization of the Escherichia coli K1 neuB gene product N-acetylneuraminic acid synthetase. Glycobiology. 1997, 7 (5): 697-701. 10.1093/glycob/7.5.697View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nakamura M, Hara S, Yamaguchi M, Takemori Y, Ohkura Y: 1, 2-Diamino-4, 5-methylenedioxybenzene as a Highly Sensitive Fluorogenic Reagent for a-Keto Acids. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 1987, 35 (2): 687-692. 10.1248/cpb.35.687. 10.1248/cpb.35.687View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Holcapek M, Jirasko R, Lisa M: Basic rules for the interpretation of atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectra of small molecules. J Chromatogr A. 2010, 1217 (25): 3908-3921. 10.1016/j.chroma.2010.02.049View ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.