- Open Access
The Aspergillus niger multicopper oxidase family: analysis and overexpression of laccase-like encoding genes
© Tamayo Ramos et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2011
- Received: 6 July 2011
- Accepted: 8 October 2011
- Published: 8 October 2011
Many filamentous fungal genomes contain complex groups of multicopper oxidase (MCO) coding genes that makes them a good source for new laccases with potential biotechnological interest. A bioinformatics analysis of the Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015 genome resulted in the identification of thirteen MCO genes. Ten of them were cloned and homologously overexpressed.
A bioinformatic analysis of the A. niger ATCC 1015 genome revealed the presence of 13 MCO genes belonging to three different subfamilies on the basis of their phylogenetic relationships: ascomycete laccases, fungal pigment MCOs and fungal ferroxidases. According to in silico amino acid sequence analysis, the putative genes encoding for functional extracellular laccases (mcoA, mcoB, mcoC, mcoD, mcoE, mcoF, mcoG, mcoI, mcoJ and mcoM) were placed under the control of the glaA promoter and overexpressed in A. niger N593. Enzyme activity plate assays with several common laccase substrates showed that all genes are actually expressed and code for active MCOs. Interestingly, expressed enzymes show different substrate specificities. In addition, optimization of fungal pigment MCOs extracellular production was investigated. The performance of the widely used glucoamylase signal sequence (ssGlaA) in McoA secretion was studied. Results obtained suggest that ssGlaA do not yield higher levels of secreted McoA when compared to its native secretion signal. Also, McoB synthesis was investigated using different nitrogen sources in minimal medium liquid cultures. Higher yields of extracellular McoB were achieved with (NH4)2 tartrate.
Aspergillus niger is a good source of new laccases. The different substrate specificity observed in plate assays makes them interesting to be purified and biochemically compared. The homologous signal sequence of McoA has been shown to be a good choice for its extracellular overexpression. From the nitrogen sources tested (NH4)2 tartrate has been found to be the most appropriate for McoB production in A. niger.
- Multicopper oxidase
- Aspergillus niger
Multicopper oxidases (MCOs) form a family of enzymes that is widely distributed in nature, including laccases (EC 220.127.116.11), ascorbate oxidases (EC 18.104.22.168), bilirubin oxidases (EC 22.214.171.124) and ferroxidases (EC 126.96.36.199) [1, 2]. MCOs catalyze the oxidation of a variety of substrates (mainly aromatic compounds and metals) concomitantly with the reduction of molecular oxygen to water. Their ability to catalyze reactions by producing just water as the only by-product has increased the interest of the industry for their use as 'green' catalysts, and their importance is reflected in the broad spectrum of applications, that range from pulp delignification, textile dye bleaching and water or soil detoxification, to the formation of pigments, the development of clinical tests and applications in the field of biosensors, bioreactors, and biofuel cells [2, 3]. Laccases form the biggest subgroup within the MCO family, and due to their broad substrate specificity they attract the most attention in studies for biotechnological applications, although other family members like ascorbate oxidases and bilirubin oxidases have shown to be promising as biocatalysts for the industry as well [2, 3]. Fungal pigment MCOs are able to oxidize typical laccase substrates as p-phenylenediamines, pyrogallol, gallic acid or 2,2-azino-di(3-ethylbenzthiazoline) sulfonic acid (ABTS) [4, 5], but no studies about their possible industrial applications have been reported.
MCO coding genes appear to be redundant in fungal genomes, probably due to the fact that their coding products may play different physiological roles and they can be differently regulated depending on environmental conditions [3, 6]. This phenomenon has been described mostly in basidiomycetes like Coprinopsis cinerea, that contains 17 laccase sensu stricto coding genes  and Laccaria bicolor with 9 laccase sensu stricto and 2 ferroxidase genes . In ascomycetes MCOs have been much less studied . Aspergillus nidulans produces YA  and LccD , belonging to the fungal pigment MCO subgroup and the laccases sensu stricto LccB and LccC . Distinct MCO genes and their coding products have been also characterized in Neurospora crassa, Aspergillus fumigatus, Myceliophthora thermophila, Melanocarpus albomyces, and more recently in Trichoderma reesei[11–15]. The production of active laccases has been reported in many other ascomycetes , but no complete families in fungi from this phylum have been described so far. Therefore, it is difficult to have an actual overview about the biotechnological potential of ascomycete genomes as source for new MCOs. Regarding Aspergillus niger, widely used as an amenable tool for laccase production together with other cell factories like Pichia pastoris, T. reesei or Aspergillus oryzae[17–19], it is remarkable that limited information is available about its potential as multicopper oxidases source, whereas various oxidoreductases, including a laccase from black aspergilli, are already being industrially commercialized (http://www.amfep.org/documents/AmfepListofCommercialEnzymes-OCT2009-Amfep0968.pdf). Only recently, BrnA, a MCO involved in the conidial pigmentation of A. niger has been described . The fact that a large number of three-dimensional structures of basidiomycete laccases have been published, whereas only two 3D structures from the ascomycete laccases sensu stricto of Melanocarpus albomyces and Thielavia arenaria have been reported, and no one is available from the fungal pigment MCO subfamily, also indicates the lack of information generated from ascomycete MCOs, particularly from the latter group, when compared to basidiomycetes.
In this investigation ten A. niger MCO putative genes were selected on the basis of their phylogenetic relationships with other multicopper oxidases with reported laccase activity and homologously expressed from the glaA promoter. Optimization of the extracellular levels of fungal pigment MCOs was investigated using different approaches.
Identification and phylogenetic characterization of A. niger MCOs
Protein accession number, predicted nucleotide and amino acid sequence length of the A. niger ATCC 1015 and CBS 513.88 strains MCOs
Accession n° ATCC 1015
Accession n° CBS 513.88
Nucleotide sequence length (bp)
Deduced primary polypeptide length (aa)
The products of genes mcoA, mcoB and mcoC cluster with fungal pigment MCOs. This group contains the enzymes YA from A. nidulans and Abr2p from A. fumigatus, both involved in conidial pigment biosynthesis and reported to have laccase activity, and TilA, which is localized at the growing hyphal tip in A. nidulans and has unknown function [10, 15, 26].
McoD, McoF, McoG, McoI, McoJ and McoM are in the cluster that groups the ascomycetous laccases (sensu stricto) that contains characterized laccases from Botrytis cinerea, N. crassa, M. albomyces and A. nidulans among others.
The MCOs McoH, McoK and BrnA cluster in the fungal ferroxidase family, that includes the Fet3 and Fet5 proteins, responsible for the reductive iron assimilation system in Saccharomyces cerevisiae[28, 29]. This cluster also harbors the vermelone dehydratase Abr1, involved (together with Abr2) in the biosynthetic pathway of melanin in A. fumigatus[30, 31]. McoH and McoK are both 49% identical to Fet3 and their coding genes are clustered with putative iron permease genes (ftrA and ftrB) whose coding products are 51% and 48% identical to S. cerevisiae Ftr1 respectively. Fet3 and Ftr1 are responsible of the high affinity iron transport in S. cerevisiae, therefore a similar function is predicted for McoH and McoK in A. niger.
McoE belongs to the ferroxidases/laccases subgroup, a grade of basidiomycete and ascomycete MCOs that includes Mco1 from Phanerochaete chrysosporium and a laccase from Cryptococcus neoformans, both of them with strong ferroxidase and weak laccase activities .
The number of MCO coding genes present in A. niger ATCC 1015 is the highest reported so far in any ascomycete, and higher than those reported in basidiomycetes, with the exception of Coprinopsis cinerea, whose genome contains 17 MCO coding genes [7, 8]. Also, significant genotypic differences have been recently found between A. niger strains ; the genome mining of the CBS 513.88 strain revealed the presence of 16 MCO genes (Table 1). Of these, 13 homologous to the ones present in ATCC 1015 and three additional full-length coding genes: the ascomycete laccase McoN, similar to McoI (58% identical) and the fungal pigment MCOs McoO and McoP, similar to McoA (56% identical) and McoC (57% identitical) respectively, highlighting even more the potential of A. niger as an interesting source for new multicopper oxidases.
Homologous overexpression of A. niger MCO coding genes with possible biotechnological interest
The analysis of the amino acid sequences and the phylogenetic relationships of the putative A. niger ATCC 1015 MCOs indicates that at least 9 of the 13 coding genes could code for extracellular enzymes with laccase activity. As mentioned before, laccases have been reported both in fungal pigment MCO and ascomycete laccase sensu stricto subgroups, thus all A. niger MCO genes included in the two subfamilies and predicted to be extracellular were selected for their homologous overexpression. The mcoI gene was also selected as it could be targeted to a non-classical secretory pathway and its hypothetical coding product is 49% identical to the laccase I of Hortaea acidophila. In addition mcoE from the ferroxidases/laccases grade was selected, as its coding product is predicted to be an extracellular enzyme and no similar MCO has been characterized so far. McoH and McoK have been predicted to be iron transporters located in the plasma membrane, therefore both of them were discarded, whereas BrnA was not selected, as no laccase activity has been reported for it and its ortolog Abr1 in A. fumigatus[20, 30, 31].
mcoA-G, mcoI, mcoJ and mcoM were homologously expressed in the A. niger N593 strain under the control of the widely used glaA-promoter (glaAp) . Due to probable ectopic integrations of the plasmids carrying the MCO genes, different expression efficiencies can occur. Therefore at least 15 transformants expressing each gene were tested in plate activity assays for ABTS and 4-amino-2,6-dibromophenol/3,5-dimethylaniline (ADBP/DMA) conversion. A significant number of transformants per gene showed laccase activity against one or both substrates. As expected, differences were observed in expression levels for each group of transformants. The additional file 1 in the supplementary material illustrates the screening for McoJ positive transformants (around 60%) in an ADBP/DMA plate assay. Different expression levels can be observed: from no detectable activity to a maximum rate of ADBP/DMA conversion, reached by several transformants.
The substrate specificity of A. niger MCOs appeared not to be correlated to their primary structures, as both ascomycete laccase sensu stricto and fungal pigment MCO subgroups include enzymes that were able to oxidize the four substrates: McoB and McoG; enzymes that clearly reacted with all of them but DMP: McoC and McoD; and enzymes that only showed activity with two substrates: McoA (ADBP/DMA and DMPPDA), McoF (ADBP/DMA and DMP) and McoJ (ADBP/DMA and ABTS). McoE, McoI and McoM were only able to oxidize DMP and very weakly, as the oxidation of the substrate was only visible after four days. However, as reported for other fungal MCOs, they may need other conditions like: a different concentration of CuSO4, substrate, incubation temperature and/or pH to perform their activity optimally [16, 35].
The patterns of activity observed in plate assays for each A. niger MCO against the different substrates suggest that remarkable biochemical differences exist between them. Therefore, further studies should be done with respect to their biochemical characterization and their possible biotechnological potential.
Optimization of fungal pigment MCOs extracellular production
Due to the wide range of possible applications of multicopper oxidases many studies are focusing on the improvement of their production levels and their molecular characterization . Fungal pigment MCOs are still a far less explored group of copper-containing polyphenol oxidases in comparison to laccases sensu stricto. Although some of them have been homologous expressed in A. nidulans, being used as a reporter system , no overproduction studies have been described. In that sense, the performance of the GlaA signal sequence (ssGlaA), successfully used to improve the secretion of many proteins, including recombinant laccases [37–39], as well as different culture conditions, were analyzed in this work.
To investigate the effect of ssGlaA in the production of extracellular fungal pigment MCOs McoA was chosen as a model enzyme. A. niger transformants ectopically expressing McoA with ssGlaA instead of their native signal sequence (ssMcoA) were generated, and their performance compared with McoA producers with ssMcoA.
The complete family of A. niger MCO coding genes was identified in the acidogenic wild-type strain ATCC 1015. Those genes coding for putative extracellular laccase-like MCOs were selected after the analysis of their theoretical coding products primary structure and phylogenetic relationships. After their cloning and overexpression in A. niger different plate enzyme activity assays showed that all genes code for active multicopper oxidases, with apparent different degrees of affinity and specificity. The use of the A. niger GlaA secretion signal did not suppose an increase in McoA extracellular production and (NH4)2 tartrate resulted to be the most appropriated nitrogen source for McoB synthesis.
Three additional MCO genes were found to be only present in the enzyme-producing strain CBS 513.88, confirming the significant genotypic differences between different A. niger strains and showing the potential of these ascomycete genomes as a source for new MCOs, that should be further investigated in order to get more insights about their possible biotechnological potential and their biological role.
Strains and culture media
Escherichia coli DH5α was used for all DNA manipulations. The pyrA deficient strain A. niger N593 was selected for the PCR amplification and homologous expression of MCO coding genes. Complete medium plates were used for spores preparation  and minimal medium , containing 50 mM of maltose as the sole carbon source and 0.1 mM of CuSO4, was used both in liquid and agar plate cultures for laccase production. The concentration of all nitrogen sources in the experiment for McoB synthesis optimization was 70 mM. Casamino acids used to supplement NaNO3 and (NH4)2 tartrate containing mediums were used in a final concentration of 0.1%.
Molecular biology techniques and transformation
Standard methods were used for carry out DNA manipulations and E. coli transformations . Genomic DNA was isolated from A. niger N593 as described previously . PCR reactions were performed using proof reading Phusion polymerase (Invitrogen) according to the manufacturer's instructions. Fungal transformations were made using a similar protocol to the one described in Oliveira et al. .
Cloning A. niger MCO genes
Primers used in this work for the amplification of the MCO coding genes in A. niger N593 strain
By means of a triple-point ligation, 234 nucleotides (nt) corresponding to the glaA 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) (synthesized by DNA 2.0 and provided in the plasmid pJref) digested with EcoR I-Pac I, and the gene mcoA, obtained from the pJET vector (Pac I-Not I), were ligated and placed under the control of glaAp and trpCt in EcoR I/Not I digested pALIV, generating the plasmid pGWmcoA (Figure 6). Plasmids pGWmcoB, pGWmcoC, pGWmcoD, pGWmcoE, pGWmcoF, pGWmcoG, pGWmcoI, pGWmcoJ and pGWmcoM were constructed by removing mcoA from pGWmcoA (Pac I-Not I) and ligating the resulting linearized plasmid with Pac I/Not I digested mcoB-G, mcoI, mcoJ and mcoM respectively.
Enzyme activity assays
All enzyme reactions were followed at 23°C. All chemicals were purchased from Sigma and Invitrogen. McoA activity was quantified measuring the oxidation rate of the ADBP in a reaction mixture containing 80 μL of culture supernatant and 20 μL of an ADBP/DMA solution. A 5 mM ADBP solution was prepared in 200 mM sodium acetate buffer pH 5.0 containing 25% ethanol, in the presence of 26 mM DMA. The product of the reaction between oxidized ADBP and DMA can be quantified by measuring its absorbance at 600 nm. One unit of activity was defined as the change of 1.0 in optical density at 600 nm per minute. McoB activity was quantified in 200 mM sodium acetate buffer pH 5.0 measuring the oxidation rate of 10 mM DMPPDA at 550 nm. One unit of activity was defined as the change of 1.0 in optical density at 550 nm per minute. The specific activity of the enzyme was determined after the purification of the enzyme (Tamayo-Ramos et al., manuscript in preparation).
The enzyme activity assays in agar plates were performed pouring a solution of either 30 mM DMPPDA, 5 mM ADBP/DMA, 2 mM DMP or 1.4 mM of ABTS in 100 mM NaAc buffer pH 5.0 over A. niger cultures grown at 30°C for 48 hours. The overlay solutions were discarded after an incubation time of 5 minutes.
96 well microcultures
Microtiter plates (1.2 ml square-well storage plates, Thermo Scientific) containing 0.8 ml of minimal medium were inoculated with 2 × 106 spores/ml, sealed with gas-permeable adhesive seals (Thermo Scientific) and incubated at 30°C and 1000 rpm in a microtron (Infors HT). After 24 hours mycelium was pelleted by centrifugation during 15 minutes at 2000 g and the supernatant recovered for laccase activity measurement.
Erlenmeyer flasks (500 mL volume) containing 100 ml of minimal medium were inoculated with 1 × 106 spores/ml and incubated at 30°C and 250 rpm in an orbital shaker.
A. niger in silico genome mining was performed using the BLASTp tool (E value: 1e-3; Matrix: BLOSUM 62; Filter: Yes; Alignment type: gapped) in both the Aspergillus Comparative Database (strain ATCC 1015) http://www.broadinstitute.org/ (Aspergillus Comparative Sequencing Project, Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT) and the Central Aspergillus Data Repository (strain CBS 513.88) http://www.cadre-genomes.org.uk/index.html.
SignalP 3.0  (both neural networks and Markov models methods were used), SecretomeP 2.0 (mammalian option was used)  and TMHMM 2.0  from CBS Prediction Servers were used to predict the subcellular localization of A. niger MCOs. Amino acid sequences were aligned by ClustalW2 (default options provided by the program in both the pairwise alignment and the multiple sequence alignment were used)  from the European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI) toolbox and the phylogenetic tree was constructed with MEGA4 program .
We thank D de Lange M Turk and K Wisse for their invaluable assistance. This work has been carried out under the IBOS SME research project 053.63.322 granted by the ACTS national research program from the Netherlands. JATR was recipient of a postdoctoral contract within research project 053.63.322.
- Hoegger PJ, Kilaru S, James TY, Thacker JR, Kues U: Phylogenetic comparison and classification of laccase and related multicopper oxidase protein sequences. FEBS J. 2006, 273: 2308-2326. 10.1111/j.1742-4658.2006.05247.x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sakurai T, Kataoka K: Basic and applied features of multicopper oxidases, CueO, bilirubin oxidase, and laccase. Chem Rec. 2007, 7: 220-229. 10.1002/tcr.20125.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Giardina P, Faraco V, Pezzella C, Piscitelli A, Vanhulle S, Sannia G: Laccases: a never-ending story. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2010, 67: 369-385. 10.1007/s00018-009-0169-1.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Clutterbuck AJ: Absence of laccase from yellow-spored mutants of Aspergillus nidulans. J Gen Microbiol. 1972, 70: 423-435.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mander GJ, Wang H, Bodie E, Wagner J, Vienken K, Vinuesa C, Foster C, Leeder AC, Allen G, Hamill V, et al: Use of laccase as a novel, versatile reporter system in filamentous fungi. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006, 72: 5020-5026. 10.1128/AEM.00060-06.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Canero DC, Roncero MI: Functional analyses of laccase genes from Fusarium oxysporum. Phytopathology. 2008, 98: 509-518. 10.1094/PHYTO-98-5-0509.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kilaru S, Hoegger PJ, Kues U: The laccase multi-gene family in Coprinopsis cinerea has seventeen different members that divide into two distinct subfamilies. Curr Genet. 2006, 50: 45-60. 10.1007/s00294-006-0074-1.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Courty PE, Hoegger PJ, Kilaru S, Kohler A, Buee M, Garbaye J, Martin F, Kues U: Phylogenetic analysis, genomic organization, and expression analysis of multi-copper oxidases in the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Laccaria bicolor. New Phytol. 2009, 182: 736-750. 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2009.02774.x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kallio JP, Gasparetti C, Andberg M, Boer H, Koivula A, Kruus K, Rouvinen J, Hakulinen N: Crystal structure of an ascomycete fungal laccase from Thielavia arenaria: Common structural features of asco-laccases. FEBS J. 2011Google Scholar
- Aramayo R, Timberlake WE: Sequence and molecular structure of the Aspergillus nidulans yA (laccase I) gene. Nucleic Acids Res. 1990, 18: 3415-10.1093/nar/18.11.3415.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Berka RM, Schneider P, Golightly EJ, Brown SH, Madden M, Brown KM, Halkier T, Mondorf K, Xu F: Characterization of the gene encoding an extracellular laccase of Myceliophthora thermophila and analysis of the recombinant enzyme expressed in Aspergillus oryzae. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1997, 63: 3151-3157.Google Scholar
- Levasseur A, Saloheimo M, Navarro D, Andberg M, Pontarotti P, Kruus K, Record E: Exploring laccase-like multicopper oxidase genes from the ascomycete Trichoderma reesei: a functional, phylogenetic and evolutionary study. BMC Biochem. 2010, 11: 32-10.1186/1471-2091-11-32.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kiiskinen LL, Saloheimo M: Molecular cloning and expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae of a laccase gene from the ascomycete Melanocarpus albomyces. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2004, 70: 137-144. 10.1128/AEM.70.1.137-144.2004.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Schilling B, Linden RM, Kupper U, Lerch K: Expression of Neurospora crassa laccase under the control of the copper-inducible metallothionein-promoter. Curr Genet. 1992, 22: 197-203. 10.1007/BF00351726.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sugareva V, Hartl A, Brock M, Hubner K, Rohde M, Heinekamp T, Brakhage AA: Characterisation of the laccase-encoding gene abr2 of the dihydroxynaphthalene-like melanin gene cluster of Aspergillus fumigatus. Arch Microbiol. 2006, 186: 345-355. 10.1007/s00203-006-0144-2.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Baldrian P: Fungal laccases - occurrence and properties. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2006, 30: 215-242. 10.1111/j.1574-4976.2005.00010.x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Colao MC, Lupino S, Garzillo AM, Buonocore V, Ruzzi M: Heterologous expression of lcc1 gene from Trametes trogii in Pichia pastoris and characterization of the recombinant enzyme. Microb Cell Fact. 2006, 5: 31-10.1186/1475-2859-5-31.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Rodgers CJ, Blanford CF, Giddens SR, Skamnioti P, Armstrong FA, Gurr SJ: Designer laccases: a vogue for high-potential fungal enzymes?. Trends Biotechnol. 2010, 28: 63-72. 10.1016/j.tibtech.2009.11.001.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kunamneni A, Camarero S, Garcia-Burgos C, Plou FJ, Ballesteros A, Alcalde M: Engineering and Applications of fungal laccases for organic synthesis. Microb Cell Fact. 2008, 7: 32-10.1186/1475-2859-7-32.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Jorgensen TR, Park J, Arentshorst M, van Welzen AM, Lamers G, Vankuyk PA, Damveld RA, van den Hondel CA, Nielsen KF, Frisvad JC, Ram AF: The molecular and genetic basis of conidial pigmentation in Aspergillus niger. Fungal Genet Biol. 2011, 48: 544-553. 10.1016/j.fgb.2011.01.005.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hakulinen N, Kiiskinen LL, Kruus K, Saloheimo M, Paananen A, Koivula A, Rouvinen J: Crystal structure of a laccase from Melanocarpus albomyces with an intact trinuclear copper site. Nat Struct Biol. 2002, 9: 601-605.Google Scholar
- Medina ML, Haynes PA, Breci L, Francisco WA: Analysis of secreted proteins from Aspergillus flavus. Proteomics. 2005, 5: 3153-3161. 10.1002/pmic.200401136.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Jami MS, Garcia-Estrada C, Barreiro C, Cuadrado AA, Salehi-Najafabadi Z, Martin JF: The Penicillium chrysogenum extracellular proteome. Conversion from a food-rotting strain to a versatile cell factory for white biotechnology. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2010, 9: 2729-2744. 10.1074/mcp.M110.001412.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Krijger JJ, Horbach R, Behr M, Schweizer P, Deising HB, Wirsel SG: The yeast signal sequence trap identifies secreted proteins of the hemibiotrophic corn pathogen Colletotrichum graminicola. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2008, 21: 1325-1336. 10.1094/MPMI-21-10-1325.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Choi J, Park J, Kim D, Jung K, Kang S, Lee YH: Fungal secretome database: integrated platform for annotation of fungal secretomes. BMC Genomics. 2010, 11: 105-10.1186/1471-2164-11-105.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Scherer M, Fischer R: Molecular characterization of a blue-copper laccase, TILA, of Aspergillus nidulans. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2001, 199: 207-213. 10.1111/j.1574-6968.2001.tb10676.x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Schouten A, Wagemakers L, Stefanato FL, van der Kaaij RM, van Kan JA: Resveratrol acts as a natural profungicide and induces self-intoxication by a specific laccase. Mol Microbiol. 2002, 43: 883-894. 10.1046/j.1365-2958.2002.02801.x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Askwith C, Eide D, Van Ho A, Bernard PS, Li L, Davis-Kaplan S, Sipe DM, Kaplan J: The FET3 gene of S. cerevisiae encodes a multicopper oxidase required for ferrous iron uptake. Cell. 1994, 76: 403-410. 10.1016/0092-8674(94)90346-8.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Spizzo T, Byersdorfer C, Duesterhoeft S, Eide D: The yeast FET5 gene encodes a FET3-related multicopper oxidase implicated in iron transport. Mol Gen Genet. 1997, 256: 547-556.Google Scholar
- Tsai HF, Wheeler MH, Chang YC, Kwon-Chung KJ: A developmentally regulated gene cluster involved in conidial pigment biosynthesis in Aspergillus fumigatus. J Bacteriol. 1999, 181: 6469-6477.Google Scholar
- Pihet M, Vandeputte P, Tronchin G, Renier G, Saulnier P, Georgeault S, Mallet R, Chabasse D, Symoens F, Bouchara JP: Melanin is an essential component for the integrity of the cell wall of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia. BMC Microbiol. 2009, 9: 177-10.1186/1471-2180-9-177.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Andersen MR, Salazar MP, Schaap PJ, van de Vondervoort PJ, Culley D, Thykaer J, Frisvad JC, Nielsen KF, Albang R, Albermann K, et al: Comparative genomics of citric-acid-producing Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015 versus enzyme-producing CBS 513.88. Genome Res. 2011, 21: 885-897. 10.1101/gr.112169.110.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Tetsch L, Bend J, Holker U: Molecular and enzymatic characterisation of extra- and intracellular laccases from the acidophilic ascomycete Hortaea acidophila. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2006, 90: 183-194. 10.1007/s10482-006-9064-z.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lu X, Sun J, Nimtz M, Wissing J, Zeng AP, Rinas U: The intra- and extracellular proteome of Aspergillus niger growing on defined medium with xylose or maltose as carbon substrate. Microb Cell Fact. 2010, 9: 23-10.1186/1475-2859-9-23.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Larrondo LF, Avila M, Salas L, Cullen D, Vicuna R: Heterologous expression of laccase cDNA from Ceriporiopsis subvermispora yields copper-activated apoprotein and complex isoform patterns. Microbiology. 2003, 149: 1177-1182. 10.1099/mic.0.26147-0.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pezzella C, Autore F, Giardina P, Piscitelli A, Sannia G, Faraco V: The Pleurotus ostreatus laccase multi-gene family: isolation and heterologous expression of new family members. Curr Genet. 2009, 55: 45-57. 10.1007/s00294-008-0221-y.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Weenink XO, Punt PJ, van den Hondel CA, Ram AF: A new method for screening and isolation of hypersecretion mutants in Aspergillus niger. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2006, 69: 711-717. 10.1007/s00253-005-0013-y.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Record E, Punt PJ, Chamkha M, Labat M, van Den Hondel CA, Asther M: Expression of the Pycnoporus cinnabarinus laccase gene in Aspergillus niger and characterization of the recombinant enzyme. Eur J Biochem. 2002, 269: 602-609. 10.1046/j.0014-2956.2001.02690.x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Rodriguez E, Ruiz-Duenas FJ, Kooistra R, Ram A, Martinez AT, Martinez MJ: Isolation of two laccase genes from the white-rot fungus Pleurotus eryngii and heterologous expression of the pel3 encoded protein. J Biotechnol. 2008, 134: 9-19. 10.1016/j.jbiotec.2007.12.008.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ganzlin M, Rinas U: In-depth analysis of the Aspergillus niger glucoamylase (glaA) promoter performance using high-throughput screening and controlled bioreactor cultivation techniques. J Biotechnol. 2008, 135: 266-271. 10.1016/j.jbiotec.2008.04.005.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Swift RJ, Karandikar A, Griffen AM, Punt PJ, van den Hondel CA, Robson GD, Trinci AP, Wiebe MG: The Effect of organic nitrogen sources on recombinant glucoamylase production by Aspergillus niger in chemostat culture. Fungal Genet Biol. 2000, 31: 125-133. 10.1006/fgbi.2000.1241.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Vazquez E, Corchero JL, Villaverde A: Post-production protein stability: trouble beyond the cell factory. Microb Cell Fact. 2011, 10: 60-10.1186/1475-2859-10-60.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Couto SR, Toca-Herrera JL: Laccase production at reactor scale by filamentous fungi. Biotechnol Adv. 2007, 25: 558-569. 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2007.07.002.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lubertozzi D, Keasling JD: Developing Aspergillus as a host for heterologous expression. Biotechnol Adv. 2009, 27: 53-75. 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2008.09.001.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- van der Veen D, Oliveira JM, van den Berg WA, de Graaff LH: Analysis of variance components reveals the contribution of sample processing to transcript variation. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009, 75: 2414-2422. 10.1128/AEM.02270-08.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sambrook J, Fritsch EF, Maniatis T: Molecular cloning: a laboratory manual. 1989, Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 2Google Scholar
- de Graaff L, van den Broek H, Visser J: Isolation and transformation of the pyruvate kinase gene of Aspergillus nidulans. Curr Genet. 1988, 13: 315-321. 10.1007/BF00424425.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Oliveira JM, van der Veen D, de Graaff LH, Qin L: Efficient cloning system for construction of gene silencing vectors in Aspergillus niger. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2008, 80: 917-924. 10.1007/s00253-008-1640-x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Goosen T, van Engelenburg F, Debets F, Swart K, Bos K, van den Broek H: Tryptophan auxotrophic mutants in Aspergillus niger: inactivation of the trpC gene by cotransformation mutagenesis. Mol Gen Genet. 1989, 219: 282-288.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mabey JE, Anderson MJ, Giles PF, Miller CJ, Attwood TK, Paton NW, Bornberg-Bauer E, Robson GD, Oliver SG, Denning DW: CADRE: the Central Aspergillus Data REpository. Nucleic Acids Res. 2004, 32: D401-405. 10.1093/nar/gkh009.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bendtsen JD, Nielsen H, von Heijne G, Brunak S: Improved prediction of signal peptides: SignalP 3.0. J Mol Biol. 2004, 340: 783-795. 10.1016/j.jmb.2004.05.028.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bendtsen JD, Jensen LJ, Blom N, Von Heijne G, Brunak S: Feature-based prediction of non-classical and leaderless protein secretion. Protein Eng Des Sel. 2004, 17: 349-356. 10.1093/protein/gzh037.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Krogh A, Larsson B, von Heijne G, Sonnhammer EL: Predicting transmembrane protein topology with a hidden Markov model: application to complete genomes. J Mol Biol. 2001, 305: 567-580. 10.1006/jmbi.2000.4315.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chenna R, Sugawara H, Koike T, Lopez R, Gibson TJ, Higgins DG, Thompson JD: Multiple sequence alignment with the Clustal series of programs. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003, 31: 3497-3500. 10.1093/nar/gkg500.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Tamura K, Dudley J, Nei M, Kumar S: MEGA4: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA) software version 4.0. Mol Biol Evol. 2007, 24: 1596-1599. 10.1093/molbev/msm092.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Morozova OV, Shumakovich GP, Gorbacheva MA, Shleev SV, Yaropolov AI: "Blue" laccases. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2007, 72: 1136-1150. 10.1134/S0006297907100112.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.