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Table 1 Examples of interactions between MAMPs of probiotics and PRRs of hosts

From: Surface components and metabolites of probiotics for regulation of intestinal epithelial barrier

MAMP Probiotic
PRR PRR location Co-receptor Species Refs
SlpA DC-SIGN Cell membrane Unknown L. acidophilus [29]
Flagellin TLR5 Cell membrane Unknown E. Coli Nissle 1917 [35]
Pili TLR4 Cell membrane Mannose glycoproteins E. Coli Nissle 1917 (type 1 pili) [42]
CPS Unknown Unknown Unknown B. thetaiotaomicron [48]
LTA TLR2 Cell membrane CD14 and CD36 L. plantarum [113]
PG TLR2-NOD1 (or NOD2) Cell membrane–Cytoplasmic CD14 L. plantarum
DAP-PG
[114]
p40
p75
Unknown Unknown EGFR L. rhamnosus GG [55]
Indole TLP4 Cell membrane Unknown B. infantis [65]
  1. PRRs pattern recognition receptors, MAMPs microbial-associated molecular patterns, TLRs toll-like receptors, EGFR epidermal growth factor receptor, DC-SIGN dendritic cell specific intercellular adhesion molecule grabbing nonintegrin, Slp surface layer protein, CPS capsule polysaccharide, NOD nucleotide binding oligomerization domain containing protein, LPS lipopolysaccharide, LTA lipoteichoic acid; p75 and p40, cell wall associated hydrolase, PG peptidoglycan