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Table 2 Multivariate analysis between clinical signs and gut microbial classes

From: Gut microbial dysbiosis in individuals with Sjögren’s syndrome

Dry eye signsClasspComparison with the literature
DEQ5Methanobacteriaceae< 0.01↑ in RA and ulcerative Colitis [18]
 Bifidobacteriaceae< 0.01 
 Eggerthellaceae0.012↓ in myasthenia gravis [19]
 Flavobacteriaceae< 0.01↓ in myasthenia gravis [19]
 Eubacteriaceae<0.01↑ in type 1 diabetes [20]
 Peptococcaceae< 0.01↓ in SLE [21]
 Ruminococcaceae< 0.01↓ in IBD and psoriasis [22]
 Erysipelotrichaceae< 0.01 
 Leptotrichiaceae< 0.01 
 Synergistaceae< 0.01 
MMPWorsePorphyromonadaceae0.042↑ in ankylosing spondylitis [23]
 Acidaminococcaceae< 0.01 
OSDIRikenellaceae0.046↑ in ankylosing spondylitis [23]
SchirmerElusimicrobiaceae< 0.01 
 Carnobacteriaceae< 0.01 
 Clostridiaceae< 0.01↑ in SLE
 Clostridia Family XI< 0.01↑ in RA and IBD-arthritis [24]
 Clostridia Family XIII< 0.01 
 Fusobacteriaceae< 0.01↑ IBD [21]
 Leptotrichiaceae< 0.01 
 Akkermansiaceae< 0.01 
 Pasteurellaceae< 0.01↑ in myasthenia gravis [19]
  1. DEQ5 dry eye questionnaire 5, OSDI ocular surface disease Index, RA Rheumatoid arthritis, IBD inflammatory bowel disease, SLE systemic Lupus Erythematosus
  2. Multivariable analysis considered the effects of demographics (age, gender, race, ethnicity). Dry eye signs not listed in table (e.g. tear break up time) did not exhibit significant associations with gut microbial classes, when considering demographics
  3. *For all dry eye signs, value from more severely affected eye used in the analysis