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Table 1 Genome editing applications of CRISPR–Cas9 in non-conventional yeasts

From: CRISPR-mediated genome editing in non-conventional yeasts for biotechnological applications

Yeasts Cas9 promoter sgRNA promoter Host strains Target locus NHEJ efficiency (positive colonies/total colonies) HR efficiency (positive colonies/total colonies), donor length References
S. stipiti ENO1 SNR52 UC7 ADE2 83%, (5/6)   [33]
TRP1 100%,
UC7 ku70Δku80Δ ADE2   71%, (5/7), 500 bp HA [35]
TRP1 64%, (14/22), 50 bp HA
UC7 KU70 100%, (4/4)  
KU80 83%, (5/6)  
K. phaffii HTA1 HTB1 CBS7435 GUT1 94%, (79/84)   [39]
AOX1 95%
GUT1+AOX1 69%
MPP1 95%
TRM1 94%
MXR1 43%
OCH1 51%
CBS7435 ku70Δ GUT1   91%, 1000 bp HA [41]
O. polymorpha TDH3 tRAN CUG BY4330 ADE12 45%, (48/106) 47%, (186/394), 60 bp HA [42]
AaTEF1 ScTDH3 CBS4732 ADE2 9%   [43]
ScTEF1 ScSNR52 LEU2 58%   [45]
URA3 65%  
ADE2 62%, 1000 bp HA
URA3+HIS3+LEU2 24%, 1000 bp HA
O. thermomethanolica AOX AOX TBRC656 HAC1 63%, (15/24)   [47]
MAL1 97%, (126/130)
MAL2 93%, (37/40)
K. lactis FBA1 SNR52 ATCC8585 Gal80Δ- Ku80Δ DIT1+ADH1+NDT80   2%, 500 bp HA [49]
K. marxianus ScPDC1 ScSNR52 NBR1777 Nej1Δ URA3   84%, (18/19), 120 bp HA [52]
NBR1777 Dnl4Δ 100%, (20/20), 120 bp HA
NBR1777 Nej1Δ Sed1 84%, (6/7), 50 bp HA
NBR1777 Dnl4Δ 92%, (46/50), 50 bp HA
TEF1 RPR1-tRNA Gly CBS6556 XYL2   66%, (68/90) [53]
Y. lipolytica UAS1B8-TEF1 SCR1’-
tRNA Gly
PO1f
(ATCC MYA-2613)
KU70
PEX10
MFE1
100%
54%, (16/30)
90%, (27/30)
  [55]
PO1f Ku70Δ PEX10
MFE1
  86%, (30/35), 1000 bp HA
100%, (7/7),
 
PO1f MFE1
AXP
XPR2
XDH
XYR
  \( \left. \begin{aligned} 69\% , \hfill \\ 62\% , \hfill \\ 48\% , \hfill \\ 53\% , \hfill \\ 52\% \hfill \\ \end{aligned} \right\}1000 \; {\text{bp}}\;{\text{HA}} + {\text{GFP}} \) [59]
TEFin TEFin PO1f TRP1 13%, (10/76)   [55]
PO1f Ku70Δ
PO1f Ku70ΔKu80Δ
   \( \left. \begin{aligned} 1 1\% , \, \left( { 1 1/ 9 8} \right) \hfill \\ 100\% , \, \left( { 1 9/ 1 9} \right) \hfill \\ 100\% , \, \left( { 1 5/ 1 5} \right) \hfill \\ \end{aligned} \right\} 500{\text{ bp HA}} \) [58]
PO1f PEX10   \( \left. \begin{aligned} 6 1\% , \, \left( { 1 7/ 2 8} \right) \hfill \\ 3 3\% , \, \left( { 4/ 1 2} \right) \hfill \\ \end{aligned} \right\} 500{\text{ bp HA}}\; {\text{in plasmid}} \)
TRP1+PEX10 37%, (15/40)  
TRP1+PEX10+GUT2 20%, (7/35)