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Table 1 Yield of torulene and torularhodin [mg/L or mg/100 gd.w.] biosynthesis by various yeast strains

From: Torulene and torularhodin: “new” fungal carotenoids for industry?

Microorganism Cultivation medium/conditions Torulene Torularhodin References
mg/100 gd.w.
 Rhodotorula glutinis mutant TL/21 Addition of 0.01 mM bromothymol blue 4.9 [36]
 Rhodotorula glutinis wild strain Cultivation with white light irradiation 32.2 14.2 [31]
 Rhodotorula glutinis DBVPG 3853 Grape must concentrate 8.51 72.13 [23]
Soy flour extract 9.63 70.84
 Mixed culture
 Rhodotorula rubra GED5 and Kluyveromyces lactis MP11
Whey 2.69 22.23 [37]
 Rhodotorula mucilaginosa F-1 25 °C 15.46 7.47 [38]
31 °C 8.79 17.72
Molasses 18.13 2.34
Ketchup production waste 21.45 4.67
 Sporobolomyces salmonicolor AL1 Saccharose 27.37 45.83 [29]
 Sporidiobolus pararoseus CCTCC M 2010326 Fed-batch cultivation 18.99 [39]
 Sporidiobolus johnsonii DBVPG 7467 Glucose 0.77 4.12 [40]
 Rhodotorula graminis DBVPG 7021 Glucose 18.23 9.31 [41]
mg/L
 Rhodotorula sp. KF-104 YG medium 1.74 1.92 [42]
 Rhodotorula glutinis mutant 32 Glucose 5 3 [43]
 Rhodotorula glutinis var. glutinis Wort 0.53 0.16 [44]
 Rhodotorula rubra ICCF 209 Glucose + 0.1% oleic acid 0.31 [45]
MS3 medium 0.71
Fructose 0.40
 Rhodotorula rubra GED8 Glucose 0.87 1.22 [46]
 Rhodotorula rubra PTCC 5255 Shaken culture 5.09 7.80 [47]
Cultivation in a biofermentor, irradiation at 1780 lx 4.48 35.59
 Rhodotorula mucilaginosa RCL-11 Control 0.82 mg/L 2.24 mg/L [48]
+ CuSO4 2.33 mg/L 5.37 mg/L
+ H2O2 8.21 mg/L 5.22 mg/L
+ CuSO4
+ H2O2
5.60 mg/L 4.03 mg/L
 Rhodotorula mucilaginosa 108 YM medium 0.31 mg/L 0.065 mg/L [15]
 Rhodotorula graminis 125 0.19 mg/L
 Sporobolomyces sp. 0.07 mg/L 0.01 mg/L
 Sporobolomyces ruberrimus H110 Technical glycerin, pH 6.0 31.54 mg/L [34]
 Sporobolomyces ruberrimus H110 Raw glycerin 70 mg/L 350 mg/L [27]