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Table 1 Composition of the culture media used in the present study (g/L)

From: Mussel processing wastewater: a low-cost substrate for the production of astaxanthin by Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous

  YPD YCM MS PSM PSMS TSMS
Glucose 20.00 50 50 20/40/80/100
Total sugars 100 100 100 20/40/80/100
Soluble starch 5.00
Bactopeptone 20.00
Yeast extract 10.00 2.50 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00
Malt extract 2.50
(NH4)2SO4 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00
KH2PO4 1.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00
MgSO4 0.50 1.00 1.00 1.00
K2HPO4 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40
CaCl2 0.35 0.20 0.20 0.20
ZnSO4 0.03 0.03 0.03
FeNH4(SO4)2 0.01 0.01 0.01
CuSO4 0.002 0.002 0.002
NH4Cl 2.00
Vitamin premix (% v/v) 5 5 5
C/N ratio 6.33 10.6 35.7 35.3 35.5 12.0/20.5/33.7/38.1
  1. The vitamin premix contains 2 g/L inositol, 1 g/L pyridoxine, 0.2 g/L calcium pantothenate, 40 mg/L thiamine and 2 mg/L biotin
  2. YPD yeast peptone dextrose, YCM yeast complet medium, MS mussel supplemented medium, PSM partially saccharified mussel medium, PSMS partially saccharified mussel supplemented medium, TSMS totally saccharified mussel supplemented medium