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Table 1 Metabolic engineering approaches to improve biobutanol production by bacteria

From: Biobutanol from cheese whey

Bacteria and engineering technique Fuel concentration Productivity Reference
g/L g/L h
Clostridium acetobutylicum not engineered B: 8.3 nr [17]
Clostridium beijerinckii engineered to use liquefied corn flour + product recovery ABE: 81.3 nr [18]
Hyper butanol producing strain of Clostridium pasteurianum isolated by chemical mutagenesis and optimized to produce butanol from glycerol in bach culture B: 17.8 B: 0.43 [19]
Idem to previous in continuous culture nr ABE: 8.30 [19]
B: 7.80
Clostridium ljungdahlii engineered to use a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide butanol produced, but only detectable during middle growth phase, then it is metabolized to butyrate [20]
Clostridium acetobutylicum engineered by inactivation of the adc gene, encoding the acetoacetate decarboxylase and necessary for acetone synthesis. B: 14.8 nr [21]
BE: 18.1
Clostridium acetobutylicum engineered with a synthetic operon for obtaining isopropanol from acetone IBE: 35.6 IBE 0.83 [22]
Clostridium acetobutylicum engineered for obtaining isopropanol from acetone IBE: 27.9 nr [23]
Clostridium ljungdahlii transformed with a plasmid, carrying the C. acetobutylicum butanol synthesis pathway genes B: 0.15* [24]
Escherichia coli engineered to produce isopropanol and butanol with genes from C. acetobutylicum and others I: 4.9 I: 0.4 B: nr [25]
B: 0.5
Escherichia coli engineered to produce butanol with genes from C. acetobutylicum B: 0.20-0.58 nr [26]
Pseudomonas putida engineered to produce butanol with genes from C. acetobutylicum B: 0.12 nr [26]
Bacillus subtilis engineered to produce butanol with genes from C. acetobutylicum B: 0.02 nr [26]
Lactobacillus brevis engineered to produce butanol with genes from C. acetobutylicum B: 0.30 nr [17]
Synthetic butanol pathway expressed in Escherichia coli B: 4.65 nr [27]
Modified Escherichia coli by the 2-keto-acid pathway B: 20 B: 0.18 [25]
Modified Corynebacterium glutamicum by the 2-keto-acid pathway B: 4.9 nr [28]
  1. *in the middle of the exponential growth phase but consumed by the organism (only 0–15 mg/L left at the end of growth).
  2. A: Acetone; B: 1 or 2-butanol; E: Ethanol; I: Isopropanol; nr: not reported.