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Table 1 Comparison of human insulin production systems[70]

From: Cell factories for insulin production

Source E. coli E. coli S. cerevisiae P. pastoris
Destination of product Cytoplasm Secreted Secreted Secreted
Biomass cell dry weight (g/l) 80, in bioreactor with fed-batch culture 1.2, in shake flask with batch culture 5, in shake flask with batch culture 59, in bioreactor with fed-batch culture
Typical spec. growth rate (1/h) 0.08- 0.12 not specified < 0.33 <0.03
Typical spec. production rate (mg/gh) 14.2 3.4 0.21 0.375
Product concentration (g/L) 4.34 0.009 0.075 3.075
Productivity (mg/l h) 1,085 4.01 1.04 17
Reference [71] [72] [19] [73]