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Table 1 Extracellular production of antibody fragments in prokaryotic expression systems.

From: The production of antibody fragments and antibody fusion proteins by yeasts and filamentous fungi

Strains Characteristics Food grade Production yields References
Lactobacillus zeae Gram+ yes scFv, ND* (secreted/cell-bound) [91]
Bacillus subtilis Gram+ yes 10 to 15 mg/L scFv (secreted) [143, 144]
Streptomyces lividans Gram+ yes 1 mg/L Fv fragment (secreted) [145, 146]
Staphylococcus carnosus Gram+ yes 5–10 mg/L VH domain (secreted) [147]
Proteus mirabilis Gram- no 40 to 200 mg/L scFv (secreted) [148, 149]
Escherichia coli Gram- no Several fragments (inclusion bodies/periplasmic space) [25, 34]
  1. *ND = not determined