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Table 2 Paradigms of the mobile and other genetic elements in LAB.

From: Systems solutions by lactic acid bacteria: from paradigms to practice

Function Paradigm Element [Genes] Discovery or Exploitations References
Replication pWV01/pSH71 [repAB] Plasmid Vectors and Copy Number [911]
Lactose Metabolism pLP712 [lacFEG] Controlled Expression; Food Grade Markers [1214]
High Frequency Conjugation pLP712 [cluA] Clumping and High Frequency Conjugal Transfer [15]
Proteinase Production pWV05 – pSK112 [prtPM] Chaperon Function; Flavor Engineering [1618]
Citrate Metabolism pCT176 [citP] Citrate Transport; Flavor Engineering [19]
Bacteriophage Resistance pTR2030 [abiA-abiZ] Bacteriophage Resistant Starters [2022]
Nisin and Phage Resistance pNP40 Bacteriophage Resistance Starters [23]
Sucrose-Nisin Transposon Tn5276 [sac &nis operons] Conjugal Transfer; Antimicrobial Strains; NICE system] [24, 26]
EPS Production pNZ4000 [eps operon] EPS Priming Polymerase; Structure Engineering [27]
Temperate Phage Bacteriophage r1t Temperature Controlled Expression [2830]
Mucus Binding GGISL2 [spaCBA-srtA] Genomic Island for Mucus Binding Pili [31]
Phage and Plasmid Resistance CRISPR-cas operon Bacteriophage & Plasmid Immunity System [3234]
Production of SLP SLP Phase Variation and SLP Induced DC SIGN signalling [3537]
  1. The canonical functions of the elements are provided with its genetic designation and, if appropriate, the relevant genes. Moreover, the potential impact of elements is indicated with key references. The elements include plasmids, transposons, genomic islands, gene cassettes or other discrete genomic sequences. NICE: Nisin Inducible Controlled Expression, SLP; Surface Layer Protein.