Efficient extracellular recombinant production and purification of a Bacillus cyclodextrin glucanotransferase in Escherichia coli
© The Author(s) 2017
Received: 30 December 2016
Accepted: 12 May 2017
Published: 19 May 2017
Cyclodextrin glucanotransferases (CGTases) catalyze the synthesis of cyclodextrins, cyclic oligosaccharides composed of glucose monomers that find applications in the pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic industries. An economic application of these industrially important enzymes requires their efficient production and recovery. In this study, the effect of Sec-type signal peptides on the recombinant expression of a CGTase derived from Bacillus sp. G825-6 was investigated in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) using a codon-adapted gene. In addition, a novel purification method for the CGTase using starch adsorption was developed.
Expression vectors encoding N-terminal PelB, DacD, and the native Bacillus sp. G825-6 CGTase signal peptides (SP) were constructed for the recombinant CGTase. With the DacD SP derived from E. coli, a 3.9- and 3.1-fold increase in total enzyme activity was obtained compared to using the PelB and the native CGTase SP, respectively. DacD enabled a 7.3-fold increase of activity in the extracellular fraction after induction for 24 h compared to the native CGTase SP. After induction for 48 h, 75% of the total activity was detected in the extracellular fraction. By a batch wise adsorption to starch, the extracellular produced CGTase could be purified to homogeneity with a yield of 46.5% and a specific activity of 1637 U/mg.
The signal peptide DacD promoted the high-level heterologous extracellular expression of a recombinant CGTase from Bacillus sp. G825-6 with a pET20b(+) vector in E. coli BL21(DE3). A protocol based on starch adsorption enabled a fast and efficient purification of the recombinant enzyme.
KeywordsBacillus sp. G825-6 Escherichia coli Cyclodextrin glucanotransferase Enzyme production Heterologous expression Signal peptides Protein secretion
Cyclodextrins (CD) are cyclic oligosaccharides derived from starch. They are synthesized industrially by cyclodextrin glucanotransferases (CGTases, EC 18.104.22.168) [1, 2]. The smallest naturally occurring CD produced by CGTases is cyclomaltohexaose (CD6) composed of six glucose monomers . Their property to form reversible complexes with guest molecules has enabled the application of CD6, CD7, and CD8 in many industrial areas where their demand is still growing. Larger CD, which could find interesting novel applications, have not reached the market yet since efficient processes for their production and purification are still not available . CGTases form a range of CD of different ring sizes with CD6–CD8 as major and larger CD as minor products . In addition to the production of CD, CGTases also find applications e.g. as anti-staling agents in the bakery industry or for the glycosylation of biomolecules [6, 7].
Cyclodextrin glucanotransferases are often produced using the original host organism or recombinantly in Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus megaterium [8, 9]. In these bacterial expression systems, a codon usage adaption for the respective expression host could efficiently increase the yield of the recombinant CGTase [8–10]. In E. coli, recombinant proteins are translocated into the extracellular space only to a limited extent [11, 12]. The recombinant extracellular expression of CGTases in E. coli has however the advantage of a simplified low-cost downstream process [13–16]. The addition of divalent metal cations, glycine or Triton X100 has been described to promote the extracellular expression of recombinant CGTase in E. coli [15, 17]. A further strategy is the use of signal peptides (SP) to promote the translocation of the recombinant enzyme. The recombinant SP PelB , OmpA , and SP derived from the host strains  have been shown to facilitate the extracellular expression of CGTases in E. coli. The extracellular expression of the Bacillus sp. G1 CGTase with the native G1-CGTase SP in E. coli resulted in a yield of 62.3% of the total activity in the culture medium . A CGTase gene from Paenibacillus macerans JFB05-01 was cloned into the pET20b(+) vector with the SP OmpA . Using a fed-batch protein expression strategy, up to 79% of the total activity was detected in the culture medium.
In this study, we compared the effect of PelB, DacD, and the native Bacillus sp. G825-6 CGTase SP on the extracellular expression of recombinant CGTase in E. coli. In addition, we showed that the extracellular expressed CGTase could be efficiently purified by batch wise adsorption to starch in a single step.
Construction of expression vectors
The codon-optimized gene coding for the Bacillus sp. G825-6 CGTase (cgtS) was cloned into pET20b(+) as described before [19, 20] and enabled the production of a recombinant CGTase with a N-terminal PelB SP. The gene encoding the DacD SP was synthesized by Life Technologies (Carlsbad, CA, USA) and cloned into the pET20b(+):cgtS vector via the restriction sites NdeI and BamHI. Originally, dacD describes the gene encoding d-alanyl-d-alanine carboxypeptidase of E. coli. In this study, we refer only to the corresponding SP of DacD. The gene encoding for the DacD SP was introduced via the restriction sites NdeI and BamHI to replace the gene for PelB SP in the pET-20b(+) vector. A construct without any SP was prepared by eliminating the pelB leader sequence using the NdeI restriction site.
Recombinant protein expression
Lysogeny broth (LB) medium containing 100 µg/ml ampicillin was used to grow E. coli at 37 °C. Flasks with 250 ml medium were inoculated with overnight cultures to an optical density of 0.1 at 600 nm (OD600). Recombinant protein expression was induced with isopropyl-β-d-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) at a final concentration of 0.5 mM at an OD600 of 0.6. After induction, cultures were further incubated for up to 48 h at 25 °C under vigorous shaking.
Aliquots (2 ml) were collected at different incubation times and separated into extracellular and cytoplasmic fractions with the PeriPreps™ Periplasting Kit (Epicentre, Madison, WI, USA).
Protein concentration was measured using the Bradford method with Rotiquant according to the supplier manual (Carl Roth, Karlsruhe, Germany). The assay was performed in a 96-well microplate format with a double determination at 450 and 590 nm . Bovine serum albumin was used for calibration.
Starch-degrading activity assay
One unit of starch-degrading activity was defined as the amount of CGTase that degrades 1 mg starch in 10 min at pH 8.5 and 50 °C . The assay was performed as described previously  with the following modifications: starch solution (12 g/l) was prepared with CGTase buffer (25 mM Tris–HCl, 10 mM KCl, 10 mM MgCl2, pH 8.5). Enzyme solution (20 µl) was added to 100 µl of the starch solution at 50 °C.
Purification of the recombinant CGTase by starch adsorption
A soluble starch solution (50 g/l) was prepared in CGTase buffer. The solution was boiled and immediately chilled to 4 °C for 24 h. The starch gel formed was used for the batch wise adsorption of the CGTase. A slurry (15 ml) was prepared by dilution of the starch gel with CGTase buffer (1:2). The mixture was centrifuged, the supernatant was discarded and the extracellular fraction obtained after the expression of the DacD-CGTase (100 ml) was added and mixed. After 20 min at 4 °C, the mixture was centrifuged at 1500×g for 3 min and the supernatant was removed. Two washing steps with CGTase buffer (45 ml) were performed. The CGTase was eluted by adding 45 ml of CGTase buffer containing 0.05 g maltose and 0.6 g KCl to the starch and incubated at 50 °C for 1.5 h. The mixture was centrifuged at 9000×g for 10 min at room temperature. The supernatant was removed and further centrifuged at 15,000×g for 15 min followed by filtration with a 0.22 µm filter. The eluate was concentrated using an ultrafiltration tube with a molecular weight cut-off of 50 kDa (Merck Millipore, Darmstadt, Germany) to a final volume of 1.5 ml.
The purification of the CGTase from the intracellular fractions obtained with the pelB construct was performed with 15 ml crude extract obtained from 1 l of culture. Cells were harvested and resuspended in 10 ml CGTase buffer. Cell disruption was accomplished by five cycles of ultrasonic treatment (Sonoplus HD 2200, tip KE 76, Bandelin Electronic, Germany, Berlin). The lysate was centrifuged at 13,000×g for 30 min at 4 °C and the supernatant was used as crude extract for purification as described above for the extracellular fraction.
CGTase purification by immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC)
A 1 ml HisTrap FF column (GE Healthcare, Freiburg, Germany) was used for the purification of the CGTase with a Äkta Pure chromatography system (GE Healthcare, Freiburg, Germany). Buffer A consisted of 20 mM sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.4 and 500 mM NaCl and buffer B consisted of buffer A with additional 250 mM of imidazole. Equilibration was performed with 5 column volumes of 96% buffer A and 4% buffer B. Extracellular supernatant (100 ml) was loaded onto the column, followed by a washing step of 2.5 CV of 96% buffer A and 4% buffer B. Elution of the CGTase was performed using a gradient from 4% buffer B to 100% buffer B within five column volumes. Fractions of 0.5 ml were collected.
Protein samples were analyzed using 12% polyacrylamide gels with 4% stacking gel . Pierce Unstained Protein MW Marker was used (Thermo Scientific, Schwerte, Germany). Extracellular fractions were precipitated by 10% (v/v) trichloroacetic acid and concentrated approximately tenfold .
Results and discussion
Recombinant expression of the CGTase
An extended induction time up to 48 h did not result in a further increase in the cell density of the constructs and only a small change of the extracellular activity was detected after 24 h.
Comparison of DacD with other CGTase-expressing SP
Previous studies have shown that other Sec-dependent SP including PelB and OmpA promoted the transport of recombinant CGTase into the periplasm [15, 28]. However, PelB in our study did not favor a secretion of the CGTase into the extracellular space. By using the native SP of Bacillus sp. G1 CGTase for the recombinant expression in E. coli, 62.3% of the total activity has been detected in the extracellular medium . In contrast, a yield of only 13.2% of the total activity was found in the extracellular medium using the CgtS SP in this study indicating that the SP for an optimal recombinant production of a specific protein cannot be predicted and requires a screening for suitable candidates. While cleavage site prediction is possible to a certain degree , the cleavage site of a distinct protein can change from its natural state when expressed with heterogeneous SP . More precise prediction methods have not been developed yet and available models are lacking a profound understanding of the effects of SP on the translocation process.
Effect of glycine on the extracellular expression of DacD-CGTase
The addition of 100 mM glycine immediately after the induction with IPTG resulted in a strong increase in the protein concentration in the extracellular fraction. SDS-PAGE analysis of the extracellular proteins obtained from cultures treated with glycine confirmed the presence of a larger amount of host proteins and a lower proportion of the CGTase suggesting an enhanced cell permeability or even cell lysis of E. coli and the corresponding release of host proteins in the presence of glycine (Fig. 3) [15, 17].
Purification of the recombinant CGTase by starch adsorption and by IMAC
Soluble starch pretreated to form a gel was used to purify the recombinant DacD-CGTase found in the intra- and extracellular fractions by batch wise adsorption. This low-cost and rapid method has previously been described for the purification of other CGTases [31, 32].
Comparison of the purification of extra- and intracellular CGTases by starch adsorption and by affinity chromatography with Ni-Sepharose 6
Protein conc. (mg/ml)
Total protein (mg)
Volume activity (U/ml)
Total activity (U)
Specific activity (U/mg)
(a) Purification of the intracellular PelB-CGTase by batch wise starch adsorption
(b) Purification of the extracellular DacD-CGTase by batch wise starch adsorption
(c) Purification of the extracellular DacD-CGTase by affinity chromatography with Ni-Sepharose 6
The DacD SP strongly promoted the extracellular production of CGTase in E. coli and enabled an up to 3.3-fold increase in the yield of total activity compared to the other SP. Furthermore, DacD SP caused a significantly enhanced secretion with a more than 13-fold higher specific activity in the extracellular fraction than in the crude cell extract. The extracellular CGTase could be rapidly purified by batch wise starch adsorption with high specific activity and yield. By using these methods, multiple samples can be purified simultaneously and the purification protocol can easily be upscaled to allow for the screening of libraries of CGTase variants obtained by random mutagenesis experiments. A high-level expression system for the extracellular production of CGTases facilitates the manufacture of industrially relevant CD at lower costs opening up new markets for these inclusion complex-forming oligosaccharides.
CS, RW, TO, WZ conceived the project; CS, RW, TO planned the experiments; EK, JW, CS performed the experiments; EK, CS, JW analysed the data; CS, RW, WZ wrote the paper. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Support from the German Research Foundation (DFG) and Leipzig University within the program of Open Access Publishing is acknowledged.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Availability of data and materials
The datasets used and/or analysed during the current study are available from the corresponding authors on reasonable request.
CS was supported by the European Social Fund (Project nr. 100234741).
The funding body did not take part in the design of the study and collection, analysis, and interpretation of data and in writing the manuscript.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
- van der Veen BA, van Alebeek GJ, Uitdehaag JC, Dijkstra BW, Dijkhuizen L. The three transglycosylation reactions catalyzed by cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from Bacillus circulans (strain 251) proceed via different kinetic mechanisms. Eur J Biochem. 2000;267:658–65.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Leemhuis H, Kelly RM, Dijkhuizen L. Engineering of cyclodextrin glucanotransferases and the impact for biotechnological applications. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2010;85:823–35.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nakagawa T, Ueno K, Kashiwa M, Watanabe J. The stereoselective synthesis of cyclomaltopentaose. A novel cyclodextrin homologue with D.P. five. Tetrahedron Lett. 1994;35:1921–4.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Taira H, Nagase H, Endo T, Ueda H. Isolation, purification and characterization of large-ring cyclodextrins (CD36∼ ∼CD39). J Incl Phenom Macrocycl Chem. 2006;56:23–8.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Qi Q, Zimmermann W. Cyclodextrin glucanotransferase: from gene to applications. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2005;66:475–85.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Shim J, Seo N, Roh S, Kim J, Cha H, Park K. Improved bread-baking process using Saccharomyces cerevisiae displayed with engineered cyclodextrin glucanotransferase. J Agric Food Chem. 2007;55:4735–40.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhang Z, Li J, Liu L, Sun J, Hua Z, Du G, et al. Enzymatic transformation of 2-O-α-d-glucopyranosyl-l-ascorbic acid (AA-2G) by immobilized α-cyclodextrin glucanotransferase from recombinant Escherichia coli. J Mol Catal B Enzym. 2011;68:223–9.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhou J, Liu H, Du G, Li J, Chen J. Production of α-cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase in Bacillus megaterium MS941 by systematic codon usage optimization. J Agric Food Chem. 2012;60:10285–92.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Jeang C, Lin D, Hsieh S. Characterization of cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase of the same gene expressed from Bacillus macerans, Bacillus subtilis, and Escherichia coli. J Agric Food Chem. 2005;53:6301–4.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Liu H, Li J, Du G, Zhou J, Chen J. Enhanced production of α-cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase in Escherichia coli by systematic codon usage optimization. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 2012;39:1841–9.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sandkvist M, Bagdasarian M. Secretion of recombinant proteins by Gram-negative bacteria. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 1996;7:505–11.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mergulhao FJM, Summers DK, Monteiro GA. Recombinant protein secretion in Escherichia coli. Biotechnol Adv. 2005;23:177–202.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ong RM, Goh KM, Mahadi NM, Hassan O, Rahman RNZRA, Illias RM. Cloning, extracellular expression and characterization of a predominant β-CGTase from Bacillus sp. G1 in E. coli. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 2008;35:1705–14.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Cheng J, Wu D, Chen S, Chen J, Wu J. High-level extracellular production of α-cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase with recombinant Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). J Agric Food Chem. 2011;59:3797–802.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ding R, Li Z, Chen S, Wu D, Wu J, Chen J. Enhanced secretion of recombinant α-cyclodextrin glucosyltransferase from E. coli by medium additives. Process Biochem. 2010;45:880–6.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Jonet MA, Mahadi NM, Murad AMA, Rabu A, Bakar FDA, Rahim RA, et al. Optimization of a heterologous signal peptide by site-directed mutagenesis for improved secretion of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol. 2012;22:48–58.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Li Z, Li B, Liu Z, Wang M, Gu Z, Du G, et al. Calcium leads to further increase in glycine-enhanced extracellular secretion of recombinant α-cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase in Escherichia coli. J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57:6231–7.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lee K, Shin H-D, Lee Y-H. Extracellular overproduction of gamma cyclodextrin glucanotransferase in a recombinant E.coli using secretive expression system. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol. 2002;12:753–9.Google Scholar
- Hirano K, Ishihara T, Ogasawara S, Maeda H, Abe K, Nakajima T, et al. Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel γ-CGTase from alkalophilic Bacillus sp. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2006;70:193–201.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Melzer S, Sonnendecker C, Föllner C, Zimmermann W. Stepwise error-prone PCR and DNA shuffling changed the pH activity range and product specificity of the cyclodextrin glucanotransferase from an alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. FEBS Open Bio. 2015;5:528–34.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zor T, Selinger Z. Linearization of the Bradford protein assay increases its sensitivity: theoretical and experimental studies. Anal Biochem. 1996;236:302–8.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Xiao Z, Storms R, Tsang A. A quantitative starch–iodine method for measuring alpha-amylase and glucoamylase activities. Anal Biochem. 2006;351:146–8.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Qi Q, She X, Endo T, Zimmermann W. Effect of the reaction temperature on the transglycosylation reactions catalyzed by the cyclodextrin glucanotransferase from Bacillus macerans for the synthesis of large-ring cyclodextrins. Tetrahedron. 2004;60:799–806.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Laemmli UK. Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature. 1970;227:680–5.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bonifacino JS. Metabolic labeling with amino acids. Curr Protoc Cell Biol. 2001;7:7.1.1–1.1026.Google Scholar
- Li Z, Su L, Wang L, Liu Z, Gu Z, Chen J, et al. Novel insight into the secretory expression of recombinant enzymes in Escherichia coli. Process Biochem. 2014;49:599–603.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sørensen HP, Mortensen KK. Advanced genetic strategies for recombinant protein expression in Escherichia coli. J Biotechnol. 2005;115:113–28.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Li B, Wang L, Su L, Chen S, Li Z, Chen J, et al. Glycine and Triton X-100 enhanced secretion of recombinant α-CGTase mediated by OmpA signal peptide in Escherichia coli. Biotechnol Bioprocess Eng. 2012;17:1128–34.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhang Z, Henzel WJ. Signal peptide prediction based on analysis of experimentally verified cleavage sites. Protein Sci. 2004;13:2819–24.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pechsrichuang P, Songsiriritthigul C, Haltrich D, Roytrakul S, Namvijtr P, Bonaparte N, et al. OmpA signal peptide leads to heterogenous secretion of B. subtilis chitosanase enzyme from E. coli expression system. Springerplus. 2016;5:1200.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pongsawadi P, Yagisawa M. Purification and some properties of cyclomaltodextrin glucanotransferase from Bacillus circulans. Agric Biol Chem. 1988;52:1099–103.Google Scholar
- Martins RF, Hatti-Kaul R. A new cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from an alkaliphilic Bacillus agaradhaerens isolate: purification and characterisation. Enzyme Microb Technol. 2002;30:116–24.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Robichon C, Luo J, Causey TB, Benner JS, Samuelson JC. Engineering Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) derivative strains to minimize E. coli protein contamination after purification by immobilized metal affinity chromatography. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:4634–46.View ArticleGoogle Scholar