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Table 2 Recent estimates of yeast lipid production cost

From: The history, state of the art and future prospects for oleaginous yeast research

Feedstock Study year Reactor type Annual production (t oil/y) Yeast lipid productivity (g L−1 h−1) Valued co-products Cost (US$/t oil) Refs.
Zero-value feedstock 2008 3000 (COM) [7]
Glucose (US$ 400/t) 2014 STR 10,000 0.54 5480 (COM) [49]
Zero-value carbon source 2014 STR 10,000 0.54 3410 (COM) [49]
Zero-value carbon source 2014 STR 10,000 2.50 1760 (COM) [49]
Zero-value carbon source 2016 STR 10,260 0.21 Animal feed 2350 (BP) [265]
Zero-value carbon source 2016 OP 10,260 0.21 Animal feed 1723 (BP) [265]
Zero-value carbon source 2016 OP 7900 0.13 Animal feed 2290 (BP) [265]
Molasses (US$ 100/t) 2016 STR 16,720 0.42 Animal feed 1300 (SP) [98]
Sucrose (US$ 258/t) 2019 STR 10,000 0.52 Animal feed, 2-phenylethanol 5240 (COM) [50]a
Sucrose (US$ 258/t) 2019 OP 7700 0.40 Animal feed, 2-phenylethanol 5690 (COM) [50]a
Wheat straw (US$ 78/t) 2019 STR 10,000 0.52 Animal feed, 2-phenylethanol 5690 (COM) [50]a
Distiller’s dried grains with solubles (US$ 255/t) 2019 STR 10,000 0.52 Animal feed, 2-phenylethanol 9870 (COM) [50]a
Glucose (US$ 400/t) 2020 STR 40,000 0.54 4100 (MSP) [52]
Glucose (US$ 400/t) 2020 STR 2000 0.54 5800 (MSP) [52]
Glucose (US$ 100/t) 2020 STR 40,000 0.54 2500 (MSP) [52]
  1. STR stirred tank reactor, OP open pond, COM cost of manufacture, BP break-even price, MSP minimum selling price, SP selling price
  2. aPrices converted with a €1 to US$ 1.12 exchange rate (2019 average)