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Table 2 Recent estimates of yeast lipid production cost

From: The history, state of the art and future prospects for oleaginous yeast research

Feedstock

Study year

Reactor type

Annual production (t oil/y)

Yeast lipid productivity (g L−1 h−1)

Valued co-products

Cost (US$/t oil)

Refs.

Zero-value feedstock

2008

3000 (COM)

[7]

Glucose (US$ 400/t)

2014

STR

10,000

0.54

5480 (COM)

[49]

Zero-value carbon source

2014

STR

10,000

0.54

3410 (COM)

[49]

Zero-value carbon source

2014

STR

10,000

2.50

1760 (COM)

[49]

Zero-value carbon source

2016

STR

10,260

0.21

Animal feed

2350 (BP)

[265]

Zero-value carbon source

2016

OP

10,260

0.21

Animal feed

1723 (BP)

[265]

Zero-value carbon source

2016

OP

7900

0.13

Animal feed

2290 (BP)

[265]

Molasses (US$ 100/t)

2016

STR

16,720

0.42

Animal feed

1300 (SP)

[98]

Sucrose (US$ 258/t)

2019

STR

10,000

0.52

Animal feed, 2-phenylethanol

5240 (COM)

[50]a

Sucrose (US$ 258/t)

2019

OP

7700

0.40

Animal feed, 2-phenylethanol

5690 (COM)

[50]a

Wheat straw (US$ 78/t)

2019

STR

10,000

0.52

Animal feed, 2-phenylethanol

5690 (COM)

[50]a

Distiller’s dried grains with solubles (US$ 255/t)

2019

STR

10,000

0.52

Animal feed, 2-phenylethanol

9870 (COM)

[50]a

Glucose (US$ 400/t)

2020

STR

40,000

0.54

4100 (MSP)

[52]

Glucose (US$ 400/t)

2020

STR

2000

0.54

5800 (MSP)

[52]

Glucose (US$ 100/t)

2020

STR

40,000

0.54

2500 (MSP)

[52]

  1. STR stirred tank reactor, OP open pond, COM cost of manufacture, BP break-even price, MSP minimum selling price, SP selling price
  2. aPrices converted with a €1 to US$ 1.12 exchange rate (2019 average)