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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of the study population

From: Gut microbial dysbiosis in individuals with Sjögren’s syndrome

VariableNo. of patientsp-valueAll cases (n = 21)
DemographicsSDE (n = 13)NDE (n = 8)
Age, years, mean ± SD (range)58.8 ± 10.0 (33–71)58.4 ± 7.0 (45–68)0.9058.7 ± 8.8 (33–71)
Gender, male, n (%)4 (31%)3 (38%)0.767 (33%)
Race, white, n (%)6 (46%)6 (75%)0.7112 (57%)
Ethnicity, Hispanic, n (%)3 (23%)5 (63%)0.408 (38%)
Smoking, n (%)3 (23%)1 (13%)0.094 (19%)
Past, n (%)2 (15%)1 (13%) 3 (14%)
Current, n (%)1 (8%)0 (0%) 1 (5%)
Dry eye symptomsa
 DEQ510.8 ± 5.0 (0–17)12.9 ± 4.6 (5–18)0.3611.6 ± 4.8 (0–18)
 OSDI37.5 ± 20.0 (12.5–83.3)47.2 ± 26.5 (0–77.1)0.3541.2 ± 22.6 (0–83.3)
Dry eye signsa
 Inflammation via inflammadry1.5 ± 1.2 (0–3)1.0 ± 1.0 (0-3)0.421.3 ± 1.1 (0–3)
 Tear break up time4.9 ± 2.1 (3–10)7.0 ± 3.7 (2–13)0.145.7 ± 2.9 (2–13)
 Corneal staining6.6 ± 2.7 (2–11)8.3 ± 4.9 (1–14)0.347.2 ± 3.6 (1–14)
 Schirmer score6.8 ± 2.4 (3–10)10.1 ± 9.5 (1–25)0.288.1 ± 6.1 (1–25)
 Meibum quality2.5 ± 0.9 (2–4)2.0 ± 1.0 (2–3)0.392.4 ± 0.9 (0–4)
  1. SDE individuals who met full Sjögren’s criteria, NDE individuals who did not meet the full Sjögren’s criteria, DEQ 5 Dry Eye Questionnaire 5, OSDI ocular surface disease index, SD standard deviation (range)
  2. *mean ± SD (range); amore abnormal value between the two eyes