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Table 2 Summary of the non-native hosts used for 1-butanol production

From: Genetic engineering of non-native hosts for 1-butanol production and its challenges: a review

Host Substrate Genes overexpressed Knockout genes Promoter 1-butanol titer References
E. coli Glucose and glycerol atoB, thl, hbd, crt, ccr, bcd, etfAB and adhE2 ΔldhA, ΔadhE, ΔfrdBC, Δfnr, Δpta, ΔpntA and ΔpflB PLlacO1 552 mg/L [28]
E. coli Glucose thl, hbd, crt, bcd, etfAB, adhE1 and adhE2 None Ptac 1.2 g/L [36]
E. coli Glucose and glycerol atoB, hbd, crt, ter, adhE2 and fdh ΔadhE, ΔldhA, ΔfrdBC, Δpta, and Δfnr PLlacO1 15 g/L [37]
E. coli Glycerol and glucose or galactose aceEF-lpdfbr, atoB, hbd, crt, ter, adhE2 and fdh1 ΔldhA, ΔadhE, ΔfrdBC and Δpta PatoB 6.8 g/L [38]
E. coli Glucose and butyrate glf, atoDA, acs, and adhE2 ΔldhA, ΔadhE, ΔfrdA, and Δpta PλPRPL and PλPL 6.2 g/L [39]
E. coli Glucose glf, atoDA, phaA, hbd, crt, ter and adhE2 ΔldhA, ΔadhE, ΔfrdA, and Δpta PλPRPL and PλPL 5.5 g/L [39]
E. coli Cellulose hydrolysate glf, atoDA, fdh1, phaA, hbd, crt, ter and adhE2 ΔldhA, ΔadhE, ΔfrdA, and Δpta Ptrc and PλPL 2.8 g/L [40]
E. coli Cellulose hydrolysate glf, phaA, hbd, crt, ter and adhE2 ΔldhA, ΔadhE, ΔfrdA, and Δpta PλPRPL and PλPL 5.8 g/L [40]
E. coli Glucose thl, crt, bcd, etfA, etfB, hbd, adhE2 and ompC-tmt None Ppr and PT7 320 mg/L [41]
E. coli Glucose and glycerol fdh, pduP, panK, atoB, hbd, crt, ter and adhE2 ΔldhA, ΔadhE, ΔfrdA, and Δpta PLlacO1 18.3 g/L [42]
E. coli Glucose atoB, hbd, crt, ter and adhE2 ΔadhE, ΔfrdABCD, ΔfdhF, Δmdh, ΔyqhD, Δhyc-hyp, ΔmaeB, ΔeutE, Δpta, ΔackA, ΔpykA, ΔldhA, ΔyciAI, ΔpoxB, ΔyagM miniPtac, PfdhF, PT7, PydfZ and PadhE 20 g/L [43]
C. tyrobutyricum Glucose aad and adhE2 Δack and Δptb Pthl, Paad, and Pptb 10 g/L [44]
C. tyrobutyricum   adhE1 and adhE2 Δcat1 Pcat1 26.2 g/L [45]
C. tyrobutyricum Mannitol aad and adhE2 Δack and Δptb Pthl, Paad, and Pptb 16 g/L [44]
C. tyrobutyricum Glucose and mannitol adhE2 None Pthl 6.8 g/L and 20.5 g/L [46]
C. tyrobutyricum Glucose adhE2 Δack Pthl 16.68 g/L [47]
C. tyrobutyricum Glucose fdh and adhE2 None Pthl 12.34 g/L [48]
C. tyrobutyricum Sucrose and sugarcane juice scrA, scrB, scrK and adhE2 Δack Pthl 18.8 g/L [49]
C. cellulovorans Cellulose adhE2 None Pthl 1.42 g/L [32]
C. cellulovorans Corn cob adhE2 None Pthl 3.37 g/L [50]
C. cellulovorans Deshelled corn cobs adhE1 and ctfAB and adc None Pthl 3.47 g/L [51]
C. cellulolyticum   atoB, hbd, crt, bcd and adhE2 None Pthl 0.12 g/L [52]
C. ljungahlii Syngas thlA, hbd, crt, bcd, adhE, and bdhA None Pptb 0.15 g/L [53]
C. autoethanogenum Syngas thlA, hbd, crt, bcd and etfAB None Ppta-ack 1.54 g/L [54]
M. extorquens Ethylamine ter and adhE2 None PmxaF, Plac, Pmeta1_3616, Pmeta1_002 15.2 mg/L [55]
K. pneumonia Glycerol ter, bdhB, and bdhA None Ppk 15.03 mg/L [56]
K. pneumonia Glycerol Kivd None Ppk 28.7 mg/L [56]
K. pneumonia Glycerol leuABCD, kivd, adhE1, fdh, gdh and udh None Ptac 100 mg/L [57]
T. saccharolyticum Xylose thl, hbd, crt, bcd, etfA, etfB and dhE2 Δldh, Δpta, and Δack Ppta-ack, PgapDH, and Pcbp 1.05 g/L [58]
P. furiosus Maltose thl, hbd, crt, ter, bad, bdh, adhA and adhE2 None Pporγ 70 mg/L [59]
L. brevis Glucose crt, bcd, etfB, etfA, and hbd None Pbcs-operon 300 mg/L [29]
P. putida Glucose and glycerol thl, hbd, crt, etfAB, bcd, bdhb and adhE1 None Plac and Ptac-lac 44 and 122 mg/L [30]
B. subtilis Glucose and glycerol thl, crt, etfAB, hbd, and adhE2 None Phyper-spank 23 and 24 mg/L [30]
Synechococcus 7942 CO2 atoB, hbd, crt, ter and adhE2 None PLlacO1 and Ptrc 14.5 mg/L [31]
Synechococcus 7942 CO2 atoB, nphT7, phaB, hbd, crt, phaJ, ter, bldh, yqhD, and adhE2 None PLlacO1 and Ptrc 30 mg/L [60]
Synechococcus 7942 CO2 nphT7, phaB, crt, phaJ, ter, pduP and yqhD None PLlacO1 and Ptrc 404 mg/L [61]
Synechococcus 7942 CO2 accase, nphT7, phaB, phaJ, ter, pduP and yqhD ΔaldA PLlacO1 and Ptrc 418.7 mg/L [62]
Synechocystis PCC 6803 CO2 nphT7, phaA, phaB, Slr0942, Slr1192, crt, phaJ, ccr, fadB, ter, pduP, yjgB, yqhD, mhpF, ΔphaEC, ΔackA, Δslr0168 and Δach Ptrc20, Pcpc560, PpsbA2 4.8 g/L [63]
S. cerevisiae Galactose atoB, erg10, thl, phaA, phaB, hbd, crt, ccr and adhE2 None Pgal1 and Pgal10 2.5 mg/L [64]
S. cerevisiae Glucose ald6, adh2, erg10, acs, hbd, crt, ter adhE2 Δcit2 and Δmls1 Ptef1 and Ppgk1 16.3 mg/L [65]
S. cerevisiae Glucose thl, hbd, crt, etfA, etfB, ad, aad, and ter Δgpd1 and Δgpd2 Pgap 14.5 mg/L [66]
S. cerevisiae Glucose pdh, acs, acl, thl, hbd, crt, ter, bad, bdhB, mhpF, eutE, adhE, and adhE2, Δadh1, Δadh4, Δgpd1, Δgpd2, Δcit2 and Δmls1   120 mg/L [67]
S. cerevisiae Glycine and glucose goxB, mls1, dal7 and leu2 Δmls1 and Δleu2 Ptpi1 92 mg/L [68]
S. cerevisiae Glucose hom3, hom2, hom6, thr1, thr4, ilv1, cha1, leu4, leu1, adh1, adh2, adh3, adh4, adh5, adh6, bdhB, kivD and aro10m Δadh1, Δilv1, Δilv2, Δilv3, Δilv6, Δleu1, Δleu4 and Δleu9, Ptef1 and Ptpi1 242.8 mg/L [69]
S. cerevisiae Glucose hom3, hom2, hom6, thr1, thr4, leu4, leu1, leu2, leu5, leu9, NFS1, ilv1, cimA, adh7, aro10m and kivD Δadh1 Pgpd1 835 mg/L [70]
Y. lipolytica   EutE, ETR1, ylact1, ylact2, ylhbd, ylcrt, YlGPD, YlMDH, hom6 and YlBDHs ΔYALI0E17787g Php4d 123 mg/L [71]
A. adeninivorans Starch thl, hbd, crt, bdh, and adhE2 Δaacp, Δaact, Δaaco, and Δagpd1 Paynr1, Payni1, Paynt1, and Ptef1 20 g/L [72]
  1. Various heterologous and homogeneous genes expressed/overexpressed, knockout genes in the microbial production of 1-butanol and their corresponding enzymes are as follows: atoB, acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase; thl, thiolase; hbd, 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase; crt, crotonase; bcd, butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase; etfAB, electron transfer flavoproteins; adhE1, aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase; adhE2, butyraldehyde-butanol dehydrogenase; ter, trans-enoyl-CoA reductase; fdh, formate dehydrogenase; aceF, dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase; lpd, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase; glf, glucose facilitator; atoDA, acetoacetyl-CoA transferase; acs, acetyl-CoA synthetase; phaA, β-ketothiolase; ompC-TMT, outer-membrane targeted tilapia metallothionein; pduP, CoA-acylating aldehyde dehydrogenase; panK, pantothenate kinase; scrA, sucrose-specific PTS; scrB,sucrose-6-phosphate hydrolase or sucrose; scrK, fructokinase; bdh, butanol dehydrogenase; bdhA, butanol dehydrogenase; bdhB, Butanol dehydrogenase B; kivd, ketoisovalerate decarboxylase; leuABCD, 2-isopropylmalate synthase; adc, acetoacetate decarboxylase; gdh, glucose dehydrogenase; udh, pyridine nucleotide transhydrogenase, bad, butyraldehyde dehydrogenase; accase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase; nphT7, acetoacetyl CoA synthase; phaB, Acetoacetyl-CoA reductase; phaJ, acetoacetyl-CoA reductase; ach, acetyl-CoA hydrolase; bldh, butyraldehyde dehydrogenase; aldA and yqhD, alcohol dehydrogenase; erg10, thiolase; ccr, crotonyl-CoA reductase; adh1, adh2, adh3, adh4, adh5, adh6 and adh7, alcohol dehydrogenase; ald6, acetaldehyde dehydrogenase; ad, aldehyde dehydrogenase; aad, aldehyde-alcohol dehydrogenase; pdh, pyruvate dehydrogenase; acs, acetyl-CoA synthetase; acl, citrate lyase; mhpF, acetaldehyde dehydrogenase; eutE, aldehyde dehydrogenase; goxB, glycine oxidase; leu1 and leu2, 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase; leu4 and leu9, 2-isopropylmalate synthase, mls1 and dal7, malate synthase; hom3, aspartokinase; hom2, aspartate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase; hom6, homoserine dehydrogenase; thr1, homoserine kinase; thr4, threonine synthase; ilv1/cha1 threonine deaminase; kivd, α-ketoisovalerate decarboxylase; nfs1, cysteine desulfurase; cimA, citramalate synthase; ldhA, lactate dehydrogenase; frdBC, fumarate reductase; pta, phosphate acetyltransferase; fnr, fumarate and nitrate reductase; pfl, pyruvate formate lyase; pntA, pyridine nucleotide transhydrogenase; frdA, fumarate reductase flavoprotein subunit; ack, acetate kinase; cit2, peroxisomal citrate synthase; gpd1 and gpd2, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; aacp, peroxisomal acyl-carnitine permease; aact, acyl-carnitine transferase; aaco, acyl-CoA oxidase