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Table 5 Improvement of lipid content in different species of microalgae with genetic engineering methods

From: Biomass and lipid induction strategies in microalgae for biofuel production and other applications

Microalgae species or strain Type of modification Changes in lipid profile in the microalgal cells Refs.
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Repression of Major lipid droplet protein (MLDP) gene expression 40% increase in the average lipid droplet diameter [197]
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Knockout of citrate synthase gene TAG level increased up to 169.5% [198]
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Artificial silencing of Diacylglycerol acyltransferase 24 gene (CrDGAT2-4) 24%-34% increase in lipid content [199]
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (starchless mutant) Inactivation of Adenosine diphosphoglucose pyrophosphorylase (ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase) 10-fold increase in TAG [200]
Chlorella minutissima UTEX 2219 Overexpression of glycerol-3-phosphate aceyltransferease gene, lysophosphatidic acetyltransferase gene and diglyceride acyltransferase 2-fold increase in lipid content [201]
Scenedesmus obliquus (starchless mutant) Knockdown of competitive pathways genes Increase in TAG accumulation of up to 51% [202]
Phaeodactylum tricornutum Heterologous gene expression of acyl–acyl carrier protein thioesterases (Acyl-ACP thioesterases) Increased accumulation of shorter chain length fatty acids [203]
Synechocystis sp. Cyanophycin synthetase gene deletion Fatty acids secretion into the medium [204]
Synechocystis sp. Phosphotransacetylase gene deletion Increase in production of fatty acids [204]
Phaeodactylum tricornutum Suppression of TAG lipase gene expression Increase of the lipid content (0.04 ± 0.01 mg TAG/mg dry weight) [205]
Scenedesmus obliquus Successful expression of diacylglycerol acyl-transferase gene Enhanced 128% of lipid content. [190]
C. reinhardtii Knock-down of PEPC enzyme with CRISPRi Enhanced lipid production up to 94% [191]
P. tricornutum Expression of malic enzyme Enhanced lipid productivity by 2.5 in comparison with wild-type [192]
P. tricornutum Overexpression of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) Increased production of lipids up to 55.7% of dry weight [186]
T. pseudonana Knock-down of a multifunctional lipase/phospholipase/acetyltransferase enzyme Mutant strains produced 2.4- to 3.3-fold higher amounts of lipids in comparison with wild-type [186]