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Table 1 Main advantages and disadvantages of open pond and closed culture systems for microalgae biomass production

From: Biomass and lipid induction strategies in microalgae for biofuel production and other applications

Cultivation system Advantages Disadvantages
Open Low operating costs Process and contamination controls with low efficiency
Easy to scale up High evaporation rate
Cooling through direct contact with atmosphere Requires lots of land to produce
Good gas interchange Poor light penetration
  High loss of CO2
  High harvesting costs
  Low production performance
  Low control over growth factors (e.g. evaporation, temperature)
PBR Lower contamination risk High operating costs
High production performance High construction cost
Relatively low harvesting cost Difficult to scale up
High light use efficiency  
Requires low land to produce  
High control parameters of culture  
Low loss of CO2