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Fig. 1 | Microbial Cell Factories

Fig. 1

From: Metabolic engineering of microbial cell factories for production of nutraceuticals

Fig. 1

Microbial-based production of nutraceuticals from simple carbon sources. A solid line is enzymatic reaction through an indicated enzyme and a dashed line represents reaction involving multiple enzymes. Xylose utilization pathway absent in S. cerevisiae or existing in Y. lipolytica but poorly expressed is labeled with red dashed arrow. Enzymes encoded by the genes shown are dxs, DXP synthase; idi, IPP isomerase; ispA, FPP synthase; HMG1, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase; crtE or GGS1, geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase; crtB, phytoene synthase, crtI phytoene desaturase; crtY, lycopene cyclase; crtW, β-carotene ketolase; crtZ, β-carotene hydroxylase; ppc, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase; aspA, aspartase; panD, l-aspartate-α-decarboxylase; gdh, glutamate dehydrogenase; gad, glutamate decarboxylase; D12D, Δ12-desaturase; D15D, Δ15-desaturase; TAL, tyrosine ammonia lyase; 4CL, 4-coumarate:CoA ligase; CHS, chalcone synthase; CHI, chalcone isomerase; STS, stilbene synthase; F3H, flavanone 3-hydroxylase; FLS, flavonol synthase; FMO, flavonoid 30-monooxygenase; CPR, cytochrome P450 reductase; DFR, dihydroflavonal 4-reductase; LAR, leucoanthocyanidin reductase. Abbreviations of chemicals are G3P, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate; DXP, 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate; IPP, isopentenyl pyrophosphate; DMAPP, dimethylallyl pyrophosphate, FPP, farnesyl pyrophosphate; L-Tyr, l-tyrosine; PEP, phosphoenolpyruvate; α-KG, 2-oxoglutarate; OAA, oxaloacetate; OA, oleic acid; LA, linoleic acid; ALA, -linolenic acid; EPA, eicosapentaenoic acid

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