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Table 4 Fatty acid composition (FAMES) as determined by GC–MS analysis

From: Triauxic growth of an oleaginous red yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides on waste ‘extract’ for enhanced and concomitant lipid and β-carotene production

Compound name & symbol Fatty acid type Waste ‘Extract’ Minimal media Uses
C12.0
(Lauric acid/dodecanoic acid)
Saturated fatty acid 2.02 3.03 Long shelf-life, non-toxic, treatment for acne, production of soaps and cosmetics [50]
C14.0
(Myristic acid/ tetradecanoic acid)
Saturated fatty acid 4.23 4.49 Myristic acid acts as a lipid anchor in biomembranes. The ester isopropyl myristate is used in cosmetic and topical medicinal preparations [51]
C16.0
(Palmitic acid/hexadecanoic acid)
Saturated fatty acid 13.42 16.27 Used in production of soaps, cosmetics, release agents, processed food, natural additive in organic products. Papiperidone palmitate used in the treatment of schizophrenia [49, 52]
C16.1 ω9c
(Palmitoleic acid/9Z)-hexadec-9-enoic acid)
Omega 7-monounsaturated fatty acid 12.1 13.79 Adhesives and sealant chemicals, Agricultural chemicals (non-pesticidal), Finishing agents, Lubricants and lubricant additives, Surface active agents. Also used as supplements and vitamins [50, 53]
C17.0
(Margaric acid/Heptadecanoic acid)
Saturated fatty acid 2.83 5.50 Adhesives and sealant chemicals, Finishing agents, lubricants, agricultural chemicals (non-pesticidal), surface active agents, flllers, and solvents
C17.1 ω8c
(cis-10-Heptadecenoic acid methyl ester)
  0.64 3.67
C18.0
(Stearic acid/octadecanoic acid)
Saturated fatty acid 9.21 10.47 Soaps, cosmetics, detergents, lubricants, softening and release agents. Plaster castings, manufacture of lead-acid batteries, candle-making, used along with simple sugar or corn syrup as a hardener in candies, dietary supplements, fireworks [54]
C18.1ω9c
(Oleic acid/cis-9-Octadecenoic acid)
Monounsaturated omega-9 fatty acid 32.60 22.54 Soap as an emulsifying agent, emollient, excipient in pharmaceuticals, and as an emulsifying or solubilizing agent in aerosol products, soldering flux in stained glass work for joining lead came [55, 56]
C18.2
(Linoleic acid/9, 12 Octadecadienoic acid)
Polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid 22.95 20.24 Used in making quick-drying oils, useful in oil paints and varnishes, beauty products industry. Anti-inflammatory, acne reductive, and moisture retentive properties [57,58,59,60]