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Table 2 Carbon balance from fermentation of 60 g/L cellulose (328 mM glucose equivalents)

From: Enhanced ethanol formation by Clostridium thermocellum via pyruvate decarboxylase

Compound mM %C3 (pyruvate)a
Ethanol 460.9 70.3%
Ex amino acid carbon (pyruvate equivalents)b 77.3 11.8%
Biomass carbon 165.0 8.0%
Ex protein carbonc 55.2 2.8%
Acetate 31.4 4.8%
Lactate 13.4 1.9%
Ex sugard 8.3 1.2%
Total 100.7%
  1. aTo facilitate comparison, carbon-containing compounds were expressed in terms of C3 equivalents as described previously [10]. For example, one C3 equivalent (i.e. pyruvate) is required to produce one ethanol
  2. bEx amino acid carbon; amount of carbon in extracellular free amino acids
  3. cEx protein carbon; amount of carbon in extracellular (secreted) protein
  4. dEx sugar; extracellular sugar, including all the soluble glucan and xylan