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Table 1 Most common cell disruption principles, respective methods as well as advantages and disadvantages

From: A combination of HPLC and automated data analysis for monitoring the efficiency of high-pressure homogenization

Principle of cell disruption Method Advantages Disadvantages References
Chemical Detergents, solvents, acid, base Standard lab equipment sufficient, selective release Expensive, not scalable, not controllable [8,9,10,11]
Biological Lysozyme Standard lab equipment sufficient Expensive, not scalable, additional impurity [12, 13]
Physical Freeze–thawing Standard lab equipment sufficient Not scalable, inefficient [14]
Acoustic cavitation Fast, efficient, easy handling Not scalable, time consuming [12, 14, 15]
Hydrodynamic cavitation Selective release Inefficient, not scalable [10, 16, 17]
Osmotic shock Selective release Time consuming, not scalable [10, 11, 18]
Mechanical Grinding (e.g. bead mill) Efficient Time consuming, not scalable, generation of heat [10, 11, 14, 15]
High-pressure homogenization Efficient, scalable Generation of heat [13, 15, 18,19,20,21]