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Table 3 Dry cell weight (g L−1), crude biosurfactant yield (g L−1), oil spreading (cm), emulsification index (%), and surface tension (mN m−1) obtained from Bacillus atrophaeus 5-2a in BB and BU media

From: Production of lipopeptide biosurfactants by Bacillus atrophaeus 5-2a and their potential use in microbial enhanced oil recovery

Medium Dry cell weight (gL−1) Crude biosurfactant yield (gL−1) Oil spreading (cm) Emulsification index (%) Surface tension (mN m−1) Yield (g g−1)
BB 1.34 ± 0.014a 1.01 ± 0.016a 19.9 ± 0.071a 54.73 ± 0.085b 25.47 ± 0.042b 0.75
BU 0.95 ± 0.028b 0.77 ± 0.014b 19.1 ± 0.10b 59.49 ± 0.33a 26.52 ± 0.057a 0.81
  1. Values are presented as the mean ± standard deviation (n = 3). Different superscript letters within a column indicate significant differences (P < 0.05) by Duncan’s multiple range test. BB for the fermentation medium used brown sugar, beef extract and peptone as the carbon and nitrogen sources; BU for the optimal medium used brown sugar and inorganic nitrogen urea as the carbon and nitrogen sources. The same as below, unless otherwise specified