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Table 1 Dry cell weight (g L−1), crude biosurfactant yield (g L−1), oil spreading (cm), emulsification index (%), and surface tension (mN m−1) obtained for Bacillus atrophaeus 5-2a grown in mineral salt solution with different carbon sources at 30 °C for 5 days

From: Production of lipopeptide biosurfactants by Bacillus atrophaeus 5-2a and their potential use in microbial enhanced oil recovery

Carbon source Dry cell weight (g L−1) Crude biosurfactant yield (g L−1) Oil spreading (cm) Emulsification index (%) Surface tension (mN m−1)
Brown sugar 0.56 ± 0.0071c 0.95 ± 0.071b 18.4 ± 0.10b 61.81 ± 0.98a 26.12 ± 0.085c
Sucrose 0.37 ± 0.028e 0.74 ± 0.085c 18.1 ± 0.16c 56.76 ± 0.25c 26.32 ± 0.035b
Glucose 0.33 ± 0.021e 0.53 ± 0.071d 17.2 ± 0.12e 58.34 ± 0.33b 26.38 ± 0.035b
Maltose 0.86 ± 0.035a 0.82 ± 0.085bc 18.2 ± 0.10bc 54.80 ± 0.18d 26.11 ± 0.028c
Starch 0.51 ± 0.014cd 0.71 ± 0.071c 17.7 ± 0.12d 56.85 ± 0.13c 26.39 ± 0.099b
Mannitol 0.48 ± 0.0071d 1.11 ± 0.042a 19.6 ± 0.071a 54.11 ± 0.085d 25.82 ± 0.028d
Glycerol 0.80 ± 0.014b 0.72 ± 0.028c 17.8 ± 0.12d 57.43 ± 0.14bc 26.32 ± 0.057b
Paraffin 0.14 ± 0.028f 0.06 ± 0.028e 8.2 ± 0.16f 0.00 ± 0.00e 40.49 ± 0.057a
  1. Values are presented as the mean ± standard deviation (n = 3). Different superscript letters within a column indicate significant differences (P < 0.05) by Duncan’s multiple range test