Skip to main content

Table 2 Organisms that naturally produce HA

From: Genetic basis for hyper production of hyaluronic acid in natural and engineered microorganisms

Microorganism Substrate concentration (g/L) Production (g/L) Yield YP/S (g/g) Productivity (g/L/h) Molecular weight (MDa) Reference
Streptococcus zooepidemicus Glucose: 10 0.95 0.09 0.0396 NR [63]
Streptococcus zooepidemicus WSH-24 Glucose: 15 6.6 0.071 0.33 NR [99]
Streptococcus zooepidemicus ATCC 39920 Glucose: 10 2.45 0.12 0.223 NR [3]
Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus ATCC 35246) Glucose: 20 NR 0.088 NR 2.4 [100]
Streptococcus equi ATCC 6580 (mutant) Glucose: 80 5.5 NR 0.344 3.8 [57]
Streptococcus equi ATCC 6580 (mutant) Glucose: 80 6–7 0.088a 0.47b 3.2 [57]
Streptococcus zooepidemicus G2 (mutant) Glucose: 40 3.51 NR 0.251 2.19 [60]
Streptococcus zooepidemicus (overexpression of genes involved in biosynthesis of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine) Glucose: 20 NR 0.075 NR ~3.4 [3]
Streptococcus sp. ID9102 Glucose: 40 6.94 NR 0.289 5.9 [101]
Chlorella cells infected with Chlorovirus NR 0.5–1 NR NR NR [27]
Chlorovirus infected with PBCV-1 NR 6.3 × 10−6 NR 1.6 × 10−6 NR [41]
Chlorovirus with PBCV-1 CV01 NR 7.6 × 10−6 NR 0.95 × 10−6 NR
Chlorovirus with PBCV-1 CVTS1 NR 9.2 × 10−6 NR 1.15 × 10−6 NR
Chlorovirus infected with PBCV-1 (aphidicolin) NR ~1.0 × 10−5 NR 5.3 × 10−6 NR
Chlorovirus with PBCV-1 CV01 (Aphidicolin) NR 14 × 10−5 NR 3.5 × 10−6 NR
Streptococcus sp. ID9102 (KCTC 11935BP) NR 6.94 NR 0.289 5.9 [101]
  1. NR not reported
  2. aCalculated from the values reported by the authors of the maximum production of HA (P) and the consumed substrate (S), defined as Yield = P/S
  3. bCalculated from the values reported by the authors of the maximum production of HA (P) and the cultivation time to obtain this production (t), defined as productivity = P/t