Growth profiles of the evolved Pdc negative strains and reverse engineered strains M81-11 and M81C. E1A, E1B and E1C are three evolved Pdc negative strains. M81-11 is a Pdc negative strain with a point mutation in MTH1 (ura3-52 his3-Δ1 pdc1∆ pdc5∆ pdc6∆ mth1::MTH1
81D). M81C is a M81-11 mutant with the CIT1 deletion. The cultivations were performed in minimal medium with 2% glucose in replicate. Error bars represent ±standard errors.