antigens expressed by
induce a pro-inflammatory response in colon epithelial cells. HT-29 cells were infected with E. coli strains expressing SefA, H:gm, H:gmd or H:gmdSefA from Salmonella, and IL-8 was measured in the supernatant after 4 hours. E. coli with the pAIDA1 plasmid only (vector) and non-infected HT-29 cells served as controls. Results are shown as mean and SEM; comparison with the vector control was performed by ANOVA and Dunnett’s multiple comparison test, *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01.