Characterization of energy parameters for the different strains under study in glucose-limited chemostat cultures. Shown are (A) the yield of ATP on biomass (Y
ATP/X), (B) the yield of total nucleosides phosphates on biomass (Y
AXP/X), and (C) the adenylate energy charge (AEC) of the cells at three different dilution rates (D). The availability of phosphorylated adenine forms inside the cell and the AEC calculations are based on three independent biological experiments conducted in triplicate, and the bars represent the mean value of the corresponding parameter ± standard deviations.