Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 3 The titers of the reported violacein-producing strains

From: High crude violacein production from glucose by Escherichia coli engineered with interactive control of tryptophan pathway and violacein biosynthetic pathway

Strain Carbon source Violacein and/or deoxyviolacein titer (g L −1 ) Time (h) Productivity (g L −1 h −1 ) Bioreactor and fermentation strategy Tryptophan addition Violacein yield Reference
Wild strains         
C.violaceum   0.43 36 0.012 Flask culture 0.2 g L−1   [22]
   1.1    30-L bioreactor batch fermentation    [3]
Duganella sp.   1.62 32 0.050 Flask culture 0.74 g L−1   [9]
J.lividum 15 g L−1 sucrose 0.85 144 0.006 Flask culture Non 0.057 g g−1 [10]
Recombinant strains         
C.freundii /pCOM10vio   0.75 40 0.019 Flask culture Non   [6]
   1.68 40 0.042 Flask culture 0.7 g L−1   [6]
  5.67 g L−1 glycerol 0.47 35 0.013 5-L bioreactor batch fermentation Non 0.083 g g−1 [13]
   0.95 35 0.027 5-L bioreactor batch fermentation 0.7 g L−1   [13]
E.coli BL21(DE3)/pET32avio   0.12 40 0.003 Flask culture Non   [6]
E.coli MG1655-Vio4   0.71 300 0.002 0.7-L Fed-batch Non   [14]
E.coli MG1655-Vio4 10 g L−1 arabinose 0.32 225 0.001 Flask culture Non   [14]
MG1655-dVio8   1.6 200 0.008 Fed-batch Non 0.032 g g−1 [15]
E.coli Bl21(DE3) B2/pED+pVio 15.1 g L−1 glucose 1.75 48 0.036 5-L bioreactor batch fermentation Non 0.116 g g−1 This research