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Table 1 Main undesired side effects observed during chaperone co-production on the quality and yield of recombinant proteins produced in E. coli, as exemplified by representative studies.

From: Side effects of chaperone gene co-expression in recombinant protein production

Chaperone/Chaperone set Recombinant protein Effects on protein production References
DnaKJE Horseradish peroxidase Growth inhibition [31]
DnaKJ Aggregation-prone GFP Proteolyis, reduced yield and lower conformational quality [20, 21]
DnaKJE and/or Trigger Factor Guinea pig liver transglutaminase Reduced specific activity [74]
DnaKJE, ClpB and GroELS Basic fibroblast growth factor Reduced yield [22]
DnaKJE-GroELS-ClpB and Trigger Factor Human protein kinase catalytic domains Increased soluble aggregate formation [43]
GroELS Basic fibroblast growth factor Proteolysis, reduced yield [22]
Trigger Factor and GroELS N-acyl-D-amino acid amidohydrolases Reduced specific activity [75]
GroELS Fab Antibody Fragment Reduced yield [46]
GroELS scFv antibody fragment Reduced solubility [76]
GroELS Cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase Reduced specific activity [32]