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Table 3 Potentially safe and toxin-free cell factories belonging to Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium that produce Monascus-like pigments.

From: Identification of potentially safe promising fungal cell factories for the production of polyketide natural food colorants using chemotaxonomic rationale

Fungal species Serial No. IBT Culture Collection # Other culture collection # Source of isolation Pigments identified Known mycotoxins
Penicillium purpurogenum      
1. 111801,2 - Unknown Monascorubramine3, PP-R1,3 None
2. 111812 CBS 123796 Pepper fruit N-glutarylrubropunctamine4 None
     N-glutarylmonascorubramine4  
3. 21347 - Human saliva PP-R5 None
4. 23082 RMF 81.01 Soil PP-R3 None
5. 36452 IMI 90178 Unknown N-glutarylmonascorubramine6 None
6. 39672 NRRL 1147 Unknown Monascorubramine7 None
     Monascin  
Penicillium aculeatum      
7. 14259 NRRL 2129 Weathering fabric Monascorubrin5 None
8. 142631 FRR 1802 Soil Monascorubrin1,3 None
     Xanthomonasin A1,3  
     Threonine derivative of rubropunctatin1,5  
Penicillium funiculosum      
9. 3954 NRRL 2119 Unknown Ankaflavin8 None
Penicillium pinophilum      
10. 131041 ATCC 9644 Radio set Monascorubrin1,3 None
  1. 1Previously reported [5, 33]; 2 Tested for the pigment producing ability in the liquid media and was positive; 3On YES Agar; 4 In M1 liquid medium; 5 On CYA agar; 6 In M2 liquid medium; 7 On OAT agar; 8 On MEA agar.