Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 2 Selected ascomycetous fungi and their species-specific polyketide pigment and/or toxic metabolite profiles.

From: Identification of potentially safe promising fungal cell factories for the production of polyketide natural food colorants using chemotaxonomic rationale

Fungal species Pigment composition (colour).
Toxic colored compounds in bold
Major known mycotoxic uncolored metabolites BioSafety Level (BSL) classification1[32] Comment2 Ref.
Fusarium acuminatum Antibiotic Y (yellow)
Aurofusarin (red)
Enniatins
Moniliformin
unknown No [24]
F. avenaceum Antibiotic Y (yellow)
Aurofusarin (red)
Enniatins
Moniliformin
2-amino-14,16-di-methyloctadecan-3-ol
unknown No [24]
F. culmorum Aurofusarin (red)
Fuscofusarin (yellow)
Rubrofusarin (red)
Butenolide
Fusarin C
Trichothecenes
Zearalenone
unknown No [24]
F. fujikuroi Bikaverin (red)
Norbikaverin (red)
O-demethylanhydrofusarubin (red)
Fumonisins
Fusaric acid
Gibberellins
Moniliformin
1 No [25]
F. graminearum Aurofusarin (red)
Rubrofusarin (red)
Butenolide
Fusarin C
Trichothecenes
Zearalenone
unknown No [24]
F. oxysporum 2,7-dimehoxy-6-(acetoxyethyl)juglone (yellow)
Bikaverin (red)
Bostrycoidin (red)
Nectriafurone (yellow)
Norjavanicin (red)
O-methyl-6-hydroxynorjavanicin (yellow)
O-methylanhydrofusarubin (orange-red)
O-methylfusarubin (red)
O-methyljavanicin
Fumonisins
Fusaric acid
Moniliformin
2 No [25]
F. poae Aurofusarin (red) Enniatins
Fusarin C
Trichothecenes
unknown No [24]
F. sambucinum Aurofusarin (red) Trichothecenes unknown No [24]
F. solani Fusarubin (red)
Isomarticins (red)
O-ethylfusarubin (red)
O-methyldihydrofusarubin (red)
  2 No [25]
F. sporotrichioides Aurofusarin (red)
Lycopene
Enniatins
Trichothecenes
unknown No [24]
F. stilboides Antibiotic Y (yellow)
Aurofusarin (red)
Nectriafurone (yellow)
Enniatins unknown No [un-published]
F. tricinctum Antibiotic Y (yellow)
Aurofusarin (red)
Fusarin C
Moniliformin
unknown No [24]
F. venenatum Aurofusarin (red)
Rubrofusarin (red)
Trichothecenes unknown No [24]
F. verticillioides Fusarubin
O-demethylfusarubin
O-methyljavanicin
O-methylsolaniol (orange-red)
Fumonisins
Fusaric acid
Moniliformin
unknown No [25]
Alternaria dauci Uncharacterized (red) unknown 1 TBI [26]
Alt. porri Altersolanol A (yellow-orange) unknown 1 TBI [26]
Alt. solani Altersolanol A (yellow-orange) unknown 1 TBI [26]
Alt. tomatophila Altersolanol A (yellow-orange) unknown unknown TBI [26]
Cladosporium cladosporioides Calphostins A, B, C, D, I (red) unknown 1 TBI [29]
Cordyceps unilateralis 3,5 8-TMON* (red)
4-O-methyl erythrostominone (red)
Deoxyerythrostominol (red)
Deoxyerythrostominone (red)
Epierythrostominol (red)
Erythrostominone (red)
unknown unknown TBI [30]
Curvularia lunata Chrysophanol (red)
Cynodontin (bronze)
Helminthosporin (maroon)
unknown 1 TBI [4]
Drechslera spp. Catenarin (red)
Cynodontin (bronze)
Helminthosporin (maroon)
Tritisporin (redish-brown)
unknown unknown TBI [4]
Epicoccum nigrum Carotenoids
Chromanone (yellow)
Epicoccarines A & B
Epicocconone (fluorescent yellow)
Epipyridone (red)
Flavipin (brown)
Isobenzofuran derivatives (yellow to brown)
Orevactaene (yellow)
unknown unknown Yes [5, 27, 28]
Paecilomyces sinclairii Uncharacterized (red) unknown unknown TBI [31]
Polyketide pigment producer of Asia
Monascus pilosus Citrinin (yellow)   1 Banned in the EU & the US [6]
M. purpureus Ankaflavin (yellow)
Citrinin (yellow)
Monascin
Monascorubramine
Monascorubrin
Rubropunctamine (purple-red)
Rubropunctatin (orange)
Monascopyridine A & B 1 Banned in the EU & the US [6]
M. ruber Ankaflavin (yellow)
Citrinin (yellow)
Monascin
Monascorubramine
Monascorubrin
Rubropunctamine (purple-red)
Rubropunctatin (orange)
  1 Banned in the EU & the US [6]
  1. 1 BSL-1: saprobes or plant pathogens occupying non-vertebrate ecological niches, or commensals. Infections are coincidental, superficial, and non-invasive or mild. BSL-2: Species principally occupying non-vertebrate ecological niches, but with a relatively pronounced ability to survive in vertebrate tissue. In severely immuno-compromised patients they may cause deep opportunistic mycoses. Also pathogens causing superficial infections are in this category.
  2. 2 Keys to selection; Yes: preselected as a possible source of pigments, No: not selected as a possible source of pigments, TBI: to be investigated as a possible source of pigments.
  3. The a priori major metabolite profiles and the BioSafety Level (BSL) classification of the fungal species are highlighted and form the basis for selection/de-selection of the species as a potential source of pigment production.