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Table 1 Comprehensive list of polyketide pigment producing Penicillium and Aspergillus species and their known teleomorphs.

From: Identification of potentially safe promising fungal cell factories for the production of polyketide natural food colorants using chemotaxonomic rationale

Fungal species Pigment composition (colour).
Toxic colored compounds in bold
Major known mycotoxic uncolored metabolites BioSafety Level (BSL) classification1[32] Comment2 Ref.
Penicillium subgenus Penicillium
P. atramentosum Uncharacterized dark brown Roquefortine C
Rugulovasine A & B
unknown No [10]
P. atrosanguineum Phoenicin (red)
Uncharacterized yellow and red
unknown unknown TBI [11]
P. atrovenetum Atrovenetin (yellow)
Norherqueinone (red)
beta-Nitropropionic acid unknown No [12]
P. aurantiogriseum Uncharacterized Nephrotoxic glycopeptides
Penicillic acid
Verrucosidin
1 No [10]
P. brevicompactum Xanthoepocin (yellow) Botryodiploidin
Mycophenolic acid
1 No [10]
P. chrysogenum Sorbicillins (yellow)
Xanthocillins (yellow)
Roquefortine C 1 No [10]
P. citrinum Anthraquinones (yellow)
Citrinin (yellow)
  1 No [4]
P. cyclopium Viomellein (reddish-brown)
Xanthomegnin (orange)
Penicillic acid unknown No [10]
P. discolor Uncharacterized Chaetoglobosin A, B & C unknown No [10]
P. echinulatum Uncharacterized (yellow) Territrems unknown No [10]
P. flavigenum Xanthocillins unknown unknown TBI [10]
P. freii Viomellein (reddish-brown)
Vioxanthin
Xanthomegnin (orange)
  unknown No [10]
P. herquei Atrovenetin (yellow)
Herqueinones (red and yellow)
unknown unknown Yes [13]
P.oxalicum Arpink red™- anthraquinone derivative (red)
Secalonic acid D (yellow)
  unknown No [3, 14]
P. paneum Uncharacterized (red) Botryodiploidin
Patulin
Roquefortine C
unknown No [10]
P. persicinum Uncharacterized (Cherry red) Roquefortine C unknown No [10]
P. viridicatum Viomellein (reddish-brown)
Vioxanthin
Xanthomegnin (orange)
Penicillic acid
Viridic acid
unknown No [10]
Talaromyces (anamorph Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium )
T. macrosporus Mitorubrin (yellow) Duclauxin
Islanditoxin
unknown No [15]
P. aculeatum Uncharacterized   unknown Yes [un- pub-lished]
P. crateriforme Uncharacterized Rubratoxin
Rugulovasine A &B
Spiculisporic acid
unknown No [16]
P. funiculosum Uncharacterized   unknown Yes [17]
P. islandicum Emodin (yellow)
Erythroskyrin (orange-red)
Luteoskyrin (yellow)
Skyrin (orange)
Cyclochlorotine
Islanditoxin
Rugulosine
Rugulovasine A & B
unknown No [16]
P. marneffei Mitorubrinol
Monascorubramine (purple-red)
Purpactin
Rubropunctatin (orange)
Secalonic acid D (yellow)
  3 No [un- published]
P. pinophilum Uncharacterized   unknown Yes [17]
P. purpurogenum Mitorubrin (yellow)
Mitorubrinol (orange-red)
PP-R (purple red)
Purpurogenone (yellow-orange)
  1 Yes [5, 16, 18]
P. rugulosum Rugulosin (yellow)   1 No [9, 16]
P. variabile Rugulosin (yellow)   unknown No [9, 16]
Eurotium (anamorph Aspergillus subgenus Aspergillus )
E. amstelodami Auroglaucin (orange)
Erythroglaucin (red)
Flavoglaucin (yellow)
Physcion (yellow)
Echinulin 1 No [9]
E. chevalieri Auroglaucin
Erythroglaucin
Flavoglaucin
Physcion (yellow)
Echinulin 1 No [9]
E. herbariorum Aspergin (yellow)
Flavoglaucin (yellow)
Physcion (yellow)
Echinulin 1 No [9]
Aspergillus section Circumdati
A. ochraceus Viomellein (reddish-brown)
Vioxanthin
Xanthomegnin (orange)
Ochratoxin A
Penicillic acid
1 No [19]
A. melleus Rubrosulphin (red)
Viomellein (reddish-brown)
Viopurpurin (purple)
Xanthomegnin (orange)
  unknown No [19]
A. sulphureus Rubrosulphin (red)
Viomellein (reddish-brown)
Viopurpurin (purple)
Xanthomegnin (orange)
  unknown No [19]
A. westerdijkiae Rubrosulphin (red)
Viomellein (reddish-brown)
Viopurpurin (purple)
Xanthomegnin (orange)
Ochratoxin A
Penicillic acid
unknown No [19]
Aspergillus section Nigri
A. niger Flavioline (orange-red),
Nnaptho-γ-pyrones (yellow)
Fumonisins
Ochratoxin A
1 No [20]
A. sclerotioniger Uncharacterized yellow Ochratoxin A unknown No [20]
Emericella (anamorph Aspergillus subgenus Nidulantes , section Nidulantes and section Versicolores )
Em. falconensis Falconensins C-H (yellow)
Falconensones (Yellow)
Zeorin (yellow)
unknown unknown TBI [21]
Em. purpurea Epurpurins A-C (yellow) unknown unknown TBI [22]
A. versicolor Sterigmatocystin (yellow)   1 No [23]
  1. 1 BSL-1: saprobes or plant pathogens occupying non-vertebrate ecological niches, or commensals. Infections are coincidental, superficial, and non-invasive or mild. BSL-3: pathogens potentially able to cause severe, deep mycoses in otherwise healthy patients.
  2. 2 Keys to selection; Yes: preselected as a possible source of pigments, No: not selected as a possible source of pigments, TBI: to be investigated as a possible source of pigments.
  3. The a priori species-specific major pigment and/or toxic metabolite profiles and the BioSafety Level (BSL) classification of the fungal species are highlighted and form the basis for selection/de-selection of the species as a potential source of pigment production.