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Table 1 Recombinant insulins approved for human use.

From: Microbial factories for recombinant pharmaceuticals

INN1 Trade name Production system Modifications from natural PK2
Insulin human Humulin
E. coli None Short-acting insulin
Insulin human Novolin S. cerevisiae None Short-acting insulin
Insulin lispro Humalog E. coli PB28K and KB29P Rapid-acting insulin analogue
Insulin glulisine Apidra E. coli NB3K and KB29E Rapid-acting insulin analogue
Insulin aspart Novorapid S. cerevisiae DB28P Rapid-acting insulin analogue
Insulin glargin Lantus E. coli NA21G and 2 additional R in B chain Long-acting insulin analogue
Insulin detemir Levemir S. cerevisiae TB30del and myristic fatty acid attached to KB29 by acylation Long-acting insulin analogue
  1. Insulin is a polypeptide of 51 amino acid, 30 of which constitute A chain, and 21 of which comprise B chain. The two chains are linked by a disulfide bond. Mutations in amino acid sequences are noted for each of the chains.
  2. 1INN: International Nonproprietary Names. 2PK:PharmacoKinetics. 3Exubera: Rapid-actin insulin using inhalation route [17], was discontinued in 2008 by the manufacturer