Simplified structures and sites of enzymatic attack on polymers from lignocellulose. A cellulose chain fragment (A) is shown, along with hypothetical fragments of the hemicelluloses xylan (B), glucomannan (C), and pectin (D). Sites of attack of some of the major enzymes acting on the respective material are indicated by arrows. The glycosidic bond type of the main-chain is indicated in brackets to the right of each polymer fragment. Carbohydrates are indicated as circles, and the reducing end of each main chain is marked by a line through the circle. White = glucose, green = xylose, yellow = glucuronic acid, red = arabinose, light blue = mannose, dark blue = galactose, grey = galacturonic acid, and pink = undefined sugar residues. Acetate groups are shown as triangles, phenolic groups as diagonals, and methyl groups as rombs.