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Table 3 L-carnitine productivities reported in the literature for different batch and continuous systems with growing and resting cells. See text for further details.

From: Production of L-carnitine by secondary metabolism of bacteria

Batch Growing Cells
Strain Productivity Molar yield (%) Comment Ref.
E. coli O44K74 0.34 g·L-1·h-1 32 Anaerobic 56
Proteus mirabilis 0.72 g L-1 g-1 40 poly(vinyl alcohol) cryogels 59
E. coli LMG194 pBADcaiC 1,7 g h-1 g-1 42 Overexpression of CaiC 26
E. coli BW25113 ΔaceA 2.88 g h-1 g-1 24 Suppression of glyoxylate shunt 26
E. coli BW25113 ΔaceK 3.17 g h-1 g-1 22 Suppression of glyoxylate shunt 26
Resting Cells
Strain Productivity Molar yield (%) Comment Ref.
E. coli pT7-5KE32 4.3 g·L-1·h-1 53.2 Anaerobiosis 61
E. coli pT7-5KE32 11.3 g·L-1·h-1 70.1 Aerobiosis 61
Proteus sp. 6.1 g·L-1·h- 50 Aerobiosis 79
Agrobacterium sp. 525a 1,2 g·L-1·h-1 38 D-Carnitine 781
E. coli O44K74 0.55 g·L-1·h-1 44 D-carnitine 14
E. coli pT7-5KE32 0.90 g·L-1·h-1 40 D-carnitine 62
E. coli O44K74 2.6 g·L-1·h-1 65 Salt Stress 71
E. coli pT7-5KE32 3.2 g·L-1·h-1 80 Salt Stress 71
E. coli O44K74 3.6 g·L-1·h-1 89 Polyethylenimine Permeabilized Cells 76
E. coli pT7-5KE32 3.8 g·L-1·h-1 94 Polyethylenimine Permeabilized Cells 76
Proteus sp. 1.6 g·L-1·g-1·h-1 68 Triton X-100 Permeabilized Cells 79
Continuous Processes
Strain Productivity Molar yield (%) Comment Ref.
Escherichia coli O44K74 0.3 g·L-1·h-1 --- Immobilized in polyacrylamide 83
Escherichia coli O44K74 1.8 g·L-1·h-1 26 Immobilized in glass beads or polyurethane foam 56
E. coli O44K74 6.2–12 g·L-1·h-1 40 Cell recycle 55,63
E. coli pT7-5KE32 1.2 g·L-1·h-1 24 Cell recycle (plasmid loss after 4–6 days) 63
E. coli pT7-5KE32 0.71 g·L-1·h-1 10 Immobilized in kappa-carrageenan 63
Proteus sp. 40.5 g·L-1·h-1 35–50% Cell-recycle 58
Proteobacteria 5.4 g·L-1·h-1 90–95 Cell-recycle 84