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Table 2 Microorganisms used for L-carnitine production from chiral and achiral substrates and the enzyme activities involved. Adapted from [2].

From: Production of L-carnitine by secondary metabolism of bacteria

  Substrates Activities involved Microorganism
Achiral precursors Crotonobetaine L-carnitine dehydratase E. coli, Proteus mirabilis, Acinetobacter lwoffi, Achromobacter xylosoxydans
  γ-butyrobetaine γ-butyrobetaine hydroxylase HK4, HK13, HK1349 (taxonomically between Rhizobium and Agrobacterium), Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Penicillium, Rhizopus, Mucor, Actinomucor, Neurospora, Aspergillus, Achromobacter, Pseudomonas, Nocardia crassa
  3-dehydrocarnitine L-carnitine dehydrogenase (NADH dependent) Agrobacterium, Pseudomonas
Racemic mixtures D, L-carnitinenitrile Nitrilase Corynebacterium sp.
  D, L-acyl-carnitine Acyl-L-carnitine esterases Fusarium oxysporum sp. lini, Corynebacterium, Bacillus, Pseudomonas
  D, L-carnitineamide Carnitine amidase Pseudomonas sp., DSM 6320 (Agrobacterium or Sphingomonas sp.)
  D, L-carnitine Carnitine racemase Pseudomonas sp., E. coli
   D(+)-carnitine assimilation Acinetobacter calcoaceticus Acinetobacter lwoffi