L-carnitine production with genetically engineered E. coli cells: effect of gene overexpression on the production of L-carnitine in E. coli. Experiments were performed in batch anaerobic systems in L-Broth (black bars) and L-Broth supplemented with 2 g·L-1 fumarate (grey bars). Overproduction of CaiT, CaiB and CaiC was performed using pBAD24 as expression vector and E. coli LMG194 [F- ΔlacX74 galE galK thi rpsL ΔphoA (PvuII) Δara714 leu::Tn10] as expression host. Control experiments with the non genetically engineered overexpressing E. coli O44K74 strain are shown for comparison. Adapted from [26,72].