Inflammation scores determination. A. Stool and macroscopic scores. Stool scores were determined during the phase of colitis induction, taking into account stool consistency and bleeding. The three macroscopic parameters (mucosal thickening, ulcerative sites and bleeding inside digestive contents) were added together to obtain macroscopic scores for caecum, proximal and distal colon. Separate scores were added up to obtain a total macroscopic score for each mouse. (*: presence of blood using HémocultII® detection test). B. Histological score. Swiss rolls were used to calculate a percentage of intact mucosa for each digestive segment. Three grades were defined depending on the mucosal state. The percentage of mucosal length in grade 0, 1 or 2 was calculated by microscopic observation of hematoxylin/eosin-stained sections (5 μm) and using LuciaG® software to measure the length of each section. Results were expressed as percentage of intact mucosa.