Experimental protocol for the induction of moderate colitis. Phases 1 and 2 correspond to mice acclimatization and to colitis induction (DSS addition in drinking water from J0), respectively. « I.A. » means « intragastric administration ». Groups of BALB/c mice were used to evaluate the effects of different treatments. Groups used as controls were: i) treated with PBS and either DSS 0% (no inflammation control) or DSS 1% (inflammation control) or ii) treated with Lb. casei MnKat – with DSS 1% (control used to dissociate the effects due to the LAB and those due to MnKat). Group E represents a severe colitis control (5% DSS).