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Table 2 Higher eukaryotic expression systems for heterologous protein production and possible advantages and disadvantages of the expression system.

From: The production of antibody fragments and antibody fusion proteins by yeasts and filamentous fungi

Expression systems Ease of molecular cloning upscaling Economic feasibility1 Pathogenic contaminants2 References3
Mammalian cells + +/- + + [59, 150154]
Insect cells ++ + + + [155160]
Plants ++ +++ ++ ++ [92, 93, 161, 162]
Transgenic animals* +/- +++ +/- +/- [163166]
Yeasts +++ +++ +++ +++ See references in section Production of antibody fragments by lower eukaryotes.
Filamentous fungi +++ +++ +++ +++ [4, 123, 128]
  1. +++ = excellent, ++ = good, + = sufficient, +/- = poor. * With transgenic animals in this context is mentioned the production of antibodies or antibody fragments in the milk of transgenic animals, for example rabbits, sheep, goats or cows 1 With economical feasibility is mentioned the time and cost of molecular cloning, upscaling and downstream processing (purification). 2 Pathogenic contaminants like viruses or pyrogens. 3 Articles dealing with production of antibodies, antibody fragments and antibody fusion proteins.