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Table 2 Role of cell wall glycopolymers and their structural variations in LAB.

From: Cell wall structure and function in lactic acid bacteria

  Role Organism* Ref.
PG variations    
O-acetylation of MurNAc Resistance to lysozyme
Activation of autolysis by amidase LytH
Ll, Lc, Lp
Lp
[23, 45]
O-acetylation
of GlcNAc
Inhibition of major autolysin Acm2
(glucosaminidase)
Lp [23]
N- deacetylation
of GlcNAc
Resistance to lysozyme
Inhibition of autolysis
Inhibition of AcmA major autolysin
(glucosaminidase)
Ll
Ll
Ll
[54]
Amidation
of D-Asp
Resistance to lysozyme
Inhibition of autolysis
Resistance to nisin.
Ll
Ll
Ll
[56]
Amidation
of mDAP
Essential for growth
Control of septation
Increase DacB L,D-carboxypeptidase activity
Lp
Lp
Lp
[57]
Teichoic acids    
WTA Bacterial morphogenesis and division Lp [120]
LTA Immunomodulatory properties La [127]
TA alanylation Cell morphology
UV stress response
Protein secretion
Resistance to nisin
Bacteriophage receptor
Adhesion to epithelial cells
Decrease of anti-inflammatory properties
Colonization of mouse gastrointestinal tract
Lp, Lrh
Ll
Ll
Ll, Lp
Ld
Lj
Lp, Lrh
Lr
[85, 112]
[114]
[113]
[52, 85, 111]
[122]
[123]
[100, 126]
[124]
Polysaccharides    
  Cell division and morphology
Bacteriophage receptor
Protection against phagocytosis
Ll
Ll
Ll
[131]
[131, 133, 144]
[131]
  Immunosuppressive function Lc, Lp [136, 142]
  Decrease adhesion and biofilm formation
Protection against antimicrobial peptides (LL-37)
Lrh
Lrh
[137]
[147]
  1. * Ll, Lactococcus lactis; Lc, Lactobacillus casei; Lp, Lactobacillus plantarum; Lrh, Lactobacillus rhamnosus; La, Lactobacillus acidophilus; Ld, Lactobacillus delbruekii subsp. lactis; Lj, Lactobacillus johnsonii; Lr, Lactobacillus reuteri.