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Table 1 Main differences between (LAB) bacteriocins and conventional antibiotics.

From: Novel bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria (LAB): various structures and applications

Characteristic Bacteriocins Antibiotics
Application Food/Clinical Clinical
Synthesis Ribosomal Secondary metabolite
Bioactivity spectra Mostly narrow Mostly broad
Intensity of bioactivity Active at nano-to-micro molar range Active at micro-to-milli molar range
Proteolytic enzyme degradability High Moderate-to-none
Thermal stability High Low
Active pH range Wide Narrow
Color/taste/odour No Yes
Amenability to bioengineering Yes No
Possible mechanism of target cell developing resistance Adaptation through changes in cell membrane composition Genetically transferable determinant that inactivates the active compound
Mode of action Pore formation, inhibition of cell wall biosynthesis Cell membrane or intercellular targets
Toxicity towards eukaryotic cells Relatively no Yes