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Table 3 Extraction of carotenoids using different techniques of cell disruption

From: Biotechnological production of carotenoids by yeasts: an overview

Authors Disruption technique Yeast Yield (carotenoid)
Michelon et al.,[123] Freezing and maceration with diatomaceous earth P. rhodozyma 93.13 μg g-1 of biomass
Freezing and DMSO P. rhodozyma 155.72 μg g-1 of biomass
Enzymatic lysis and ultrasonic waves P. rhodozyma 163.12 μg g-1 of biomass
Aksu and Eren[38] Bead grinder R. glutinis 125 mg L-1 of medium
Park et al.,[122] Freeze-dried R. glutinis 266.1 μg g-1 of biomass
Valduga et al.,[119] Freezing in liquid N2 and maceration S. salmonicolor 590.4 μg L-1 of medium
Taskin et al.,[118] DMSO, acetone and petroleum ether R. glutinis 92 mg L-1 of medium
Gu et al.,[58] HCl and acetone Rhodotobacter sphaeroides 4790 μg g-1 of biomass
Buzzini et al.,[78] DMSO, acetone and petroleum ether Rhodotorula graminis 803.2 μg g-1 of biomass