Deletion of apoptosis-related genes shortens CLS under winemaking conditions. The deletion mutants of YCA1, AIF1, or both, on the C9 strain were used for grape juice fermentations. A) Cell viability over time was measured as cfu/mL. B) Survival curves after taking day 4 of fermentation as 100% survival. Experiments were done in triplicate and the mean and standard deviation are provided. C) C9 strain after 8 days of fermentation was co-stained with propidium iodide (PI) and DAPI, and observed under a fluorescence microscopy. A merged image is also shown.