HST3 overexpression reduces acetic acid production and enhances ethanol tolerance. Ethanol (A), acetic acid (B) and glycerol (C) production at the end of fermentation for the overexpressing strains described in Figure 1 in relation to the concentration of each metabolite produced by the parental L2056 strain. D) Survival after the incubation of stationary cultures on YPD at 10% ethanol for 1 hour. Cells were diluted, plated on YPD plates and counted before and after stress application. Experiments were done in triplicate and the mean and standard deviation are provided. *p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.005, unpaired t-test, two-tailed.