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Table 2 Summary of PUFA enrichment processes

From: Microalgal biofactories: a promising approach towards sustainable omega-3 fatty acid production

Method Procedure
Molecular distillation (Fractional distillation) Purification of fatty acid esters in a vacuum system based on the different boiling points of different fatty acids [105].
Molecular sieves Separation via membrane permeability and selectivity [106].
PUFA transformations Esterification of PUFA and free fatty acids to produce esters (ethyl-, glyceryl-, sugar-, other). Inter-esterification to enrich lowly unsaturated fatty acids with PUFA [107].
Super Critical Fluid Extraction Optimization of lipid solubility and fractionation in supercritical CO2[108].
Urea complexation Solubilization of fatty acids, adding urea and ethanol to saturation point exposing it to heat. Recovery of product by filtration [109].
Winterization Temperature reduction to render more saturated fats insoluble [110].