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Table 1 Examples of Proteins and Genes Involved in the Stress Responses of Probiotics

From: Enhancing the stress responses of probiotics for a lifestyle from gut to product and back again

Stress Protein/Gene/System (General Role/Description) Fold Induction Strain Ref
Heat GroEL (chaperone protein) +49.1 Lactobacillus paracasei NFBC338 [37]
Heat
Osmotic
GroEL (chaperone protein) +15
+3
Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 [118]
Heat clpL1 (Clp ATPase family, members act as chaperones and regulators of proteolysis) +20 Lactobacillus rhamnosus E800 [119]
Heat, Cold, Ethanol hsp18.5 (heat shock protein)
hsp19.3 (heat shock protein)
nd Lactobacillus plantarum Lp90 [41]
Heat, Cold, Ethanol hsp18.55 (heat shock protein) nd Lactobacillus plantarum Lp90 [42]
Heat DnaK (chaperone protein)
GroEL (chaperone protein)
ClpE (Clp ATPase family, members act as chaperones and regulators of proteolysis)
+4.4
+3.8
+1.7
Lactobacillus gasseri ATCC 33323 [120]
Heat FtsH (protease and chaperone activity) +8 Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 [121]
Heat HtrA (protease and chaperone activity)
GroEL (chaperone protein)
DnaK (chaperone protein)
GrpE (chaperone protein)
+10 -+15
+5 -+10
+10 -+15
+2 -+5
Bifidobacterium longum 3A [122]
Heat groEl-cspA, (chaperone protein-cold shock protein)
groES (chaperone protein)
+12
+8
Bifidobacterium breve UCC 2003 [123]
Heat clpC (Clp ATPase family, members act as chaperones and regulators of proteolysis) +15 Bifidobacterium breve UCC 2003 [124]
Heat clpP operon: clpP1, clpP2 (Clp ATPase family, members act as chaperones and regulators of proteolysis) +15 Bifidobacterium breve UCC 2003 [125]
Heat
Osmotic
hsp20 (heat shock protein) +28
+25
Bifidobacterium breve UCC 2003 [126]
Temperature downshift cspA (cold shock protein) +20 Lactobacillus bulgaricus VI104 [127]
Cold ClpP (Clp ATPase family, members act as chaperones and regulators of proteolysis)
Pyruvate kinase
Glycoprotein endopeptidase
≥2 Lactobacillus acidophilus RD758 [128]
Temperature downshift cspL (cold shock protein) +17 Lactobacillus plantarum NC8 [46]
Osmotic dnaK operon: dnaK, grpE, dnaJ (chaperones), ORF1 (similarity to predicted heat-controlled transcriptional regulators of Mer family) +15, +14 Bifidobacterium breve UCC 2003 [129]
Osmotic dnaJ 2 (chaperone) +4.5 Bifidobacterium breve UCC 2003 [130]
Oxygen NADH oxidase & NADH peroxidase   Lactobacillus acidophilus 2400
Lactobacillus acidophilus 2409
Bifidobacterium lactis 1941
Bifidobacterium pseudolongum 1944
Bifidobacterium longum 1944
[103]
Oxygen AhpC (alkyl hydroperoxide reductase C22)
PNDR (Pyridine nucleotide-disulfide reductase)
Dps (DNA-binding ferritin-like protein)
NrdA (ribonucleotide reductase)
MutT1 (NTP phosphohydrolases)
+10
+2
+1.7
+2
+1.8
Bifidobacterium longum BBMN68 [104]
Bile HtrA (protease and chaperone activity)
DnaK (chaperone protein)
GroEL (chaperone protein)
+1.5-+2
+1.5-+2
+1.5-+2
Bifidobacterium longum 3A [122]
Bile Bsh1 (bile salt hydrolase)   Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 [131]
Bile Ctr (cholate transporter)   Bifidobacterium longum NCIMB 702259T [132]
Acid clpL (Clp ATPase family, members act as chaperones and regulators of proteolysis)
Ir1516 (putative cell wall-altering esterase)
+2-+3
>5
Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 [133]
Acid GrpE (chaperone protein) >3.5 Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis CB1 [134]
Acid LBAI524HK (histidine kinase)   Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM [135]
Acid F 0 F 1 - ATPase operon (involved in ATP synthesis and proton extrusion) +2 Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM/N2 [136]
Acid F 0 F 1 - ATPase operon (involved in ATP synthesis and proton extrusion) +15 Bifidobacterium lactis DSM10140 [137]